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Tips, Troubleshooting and How-To Guides for Mac/OS X/iOS Users
About Thunderbolt, HDMI, USB 3.0, Wi-Fi/Bluetooth, AirPrint, AirPlay, FaceTime, iCloud, OS X Troubleshooting, more.
Last Update: Added Apple Music Lossless Audio & Dolby Atmos, AirTag, Cellular Data Usage.
(Previous Updates: Rosetta 2, M1 Macs, Big Sur, AirPods, Mac HDR, 2019 Mac Pro Parts Guides, Private Wi-Fi Address,
T2 Mac Firmware Restore, Pro Display XDR, added Security Mitigations info to Security Topics, Apple Arcade Articles,
Aperture migration to Photos or Lightroom Classic, eGPU support, "Metal" supported Macs, updated Apple Privacy topic,
HomePod tips, Secure boot and Startup Security Utility, macOS High Sierra and APFS drive format,
Apple TV 4K HDR/Dolby Vision, Tip for Can't boot from external drive in Sierra or later, Touch ID/Face ID,
Apple TV topic added doc on Single sign-on, Thunderbolt, HomeKit, Wi-Fi topics updated.
Updated Boot Camp, Apple Music, Photos App, Homekit, AppleCare, Apple Watch topics)
For new Mac owners, or anyone wanting to learn more about later macOS versions/features, here is a listing of Apple's Mac Basics How-To articles, Specs, FAQs and Tips for Mac and OS X Users. (iOS info also added.) Includes guides to troubleshooting problems, backups, restoring, reinstalling OS X, and more.
This page also has links to Apple FAQs and Guides on HDMI, Audio, AirPlay, iTunes, Apple TV, CD/DVD sharing, USB, Apple Display Adapters, Mini DisplayPort, Thunderbolt, USB, Firewire, Tips for iOS/iPhone/iPad/iPod Touch users and a list of AirPort Utility and Firmware Updates for Apple Base Stations and Time Capsules. (Also tips/guides on using Boot Camp to run Windows on a Mac.)
Plus important tips on what to do with your personal files/data before selling or donating your Mac or iPhone/iPad, and what to do if your Apple product is lost or stolen (and beforehand).
(Note: If you get a 'file not found' (404) on a link, try again later as article may be in process of being updated. It may also be removed. Apple's CDN network has been frustrating at times, including access denied errors. Some articles have been archived but may still be useful for users of previous OS X versions.)
= Topics Menu/Links =
(You can also use Browser's "Find" option to search page for other items/topics.)
Basics/Apps | Printing | Wi-Fi & BlueTooth | Audio/Video | iTunes | Internet/Browsers/Mail | Facetime | AirPlay | AirDrop | AirPods
macOS Security | Backups/Time Machine | HomeSharing | Displays/TV | Apple TV | iCloud | Migrating Files from a Mac/PC
Diagnostics | Troubleshooting | Reinstall macOS | Startup Problems | Ports & Adapters | Apple RAID Cards | Fusion Drives
- How to set up your new Mac
(now goes to "Set up your MacBook Pro")
- Mac Support Home (with pages for each model & macOS)
- macOS User Guide for macOS Big Sur
- macOS User Guide Table of Contents
- Get to know the Finder on your Mac
- Get to know the Mac desktop
- Use the Dock on Mac
- Use Mission Control on your Mac
- Use Launchpad on your Mac
- Use Switch Control to interact with your Mac
- How to Prevent apps and windows from reopening
(was titled "Automatically re-open windows, apps, and documents on your Mac")
- If the date or time is wrong on your Mac
- How to Change Privacy preferences on Mac
- Manage the information your Mac makes available to others across the internet or on a network.
- Set up users, guests, and groups on Mac
- How to delete apps on your Mac
- If you can't empty the Trash on your Mac
- If you can't unlock settings in System Preferences (revised March 2021)
(Revised to no longer mention macOS 11.1 & T2 Chip Macs, where fix was to reset the SMC.)
Some intel-based Macs users said a SMC reset fixed mounting FileVault encrypted drives after macOS 11.1 update.
- How to use Dark Mode on your Mac
- Includes tips on making the backgrounds in apps not use dark mode.
(I like Dark Mode but didn't want the pages in apps to be dark with white text.)
- Use a screen saver on your Mac
- How to take a screenshot on your Mac
- How to select a different startup disk
(previous HT202796 was "How to set up and use an external Mac startup disk")
- How to Log out, sleep, wake, restart, or shut down your Mac
- Mac keyboard shortcuts
- Mac Startup Key Combinations (for Intel-based Macs)
- If your Mac doesn't respond to key presses
- One or more keys on the keyboard do not respond (archived Jan. 2017)
- How to use the function keys on your Mac
(was titled "How to change the behavior of function keys on your Mac")
- How to Adjust the brightness of your backlit keyboard
- How to use the Touch Bar on Mac
- How to use function keys on MacBook Pro with Touch Bar
- How to use the Escape button on your MacBook Pro with Touch Bar
- Mac notebooks: Key placement and functions (archived Jan. 2017)
- How to Use emoji and symbols on Mac
- If you can't type accented characters, use Dictation, or select emoji in Touch Bar of MacBook Pro
- These features may not work if you installed Webroot SecureAnywhere. See article for solution.
- Mac accessibility shortcuts
- How to use the Accessibility Options panel on Mac
- How to use accessibility features with Touch Bar on your MacBook Pro
- Apple Accessibility Support
- How to use a pointer device with AssistiveTouch on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- How to use the Force Touch trackpad
- How to use Multi-Touch gestures on your Mac
- Mac notebooks: How to determine that your notebook has a Multi-Touch trackpad (archived Dec. 2016)
Apple Wireless Keyboard, Mouse & Trackpad Setup/Tips
- Using a Bluetooth mouse, keyboard, or trackpad with your Mac (archived March 2021)
- How to identify your Apple wireless mouse, keyboard, or trackpad
- How to Set up your Magic Keyboard, Magic Mouse, or Magic Trackpad with your Mac
- If you can't connect your Magic Keyboard, Magic Mouse, or Magic Trackpad to your Mac
- Apple Wireless Keyboard and Magic Keyboard compatibility with iOS devices (archived May 2021)
- Set up and use Magic Keyboard for iPad
- Learn iPad keyboard shortcuts (with external keyboard)
- Use your Smart Keyboard Folio or Smart Keyboard with your iPad
- If you can't connect your iPad to your Magic Keyboard, Smart Keyboard, or Smart Keyboard Folio
- Apple Wireless Keyboards and Mouse: System Requirements (archived Aug. 2013)
- Article on 2009 and older models of Apple wireless keyboards and Wireless Mouse.
- Recharge the built-in battery in your Apple keyboard, mouse, or trackpad
- Apple Wireless Keyboard, Mouse, and Trackpad: How to install batteries (archived Apr. 2020)
- Mac mini (Mid 2011 and later) & iMac (Late 2012): Bluetooth keyboard may not pair during Setup Assistant (with Tips)
(Article HT203697 no longer online)
Using Dictation and Voice Commands in OS X
- How to Use Siri on your Mac in macOS Sierra and later.
- About Ask Siri, Dictation & Privacy
- How to Use Voice Control on your Mac
- Dictation on your Mac might not work if your Internet connection is filtered (archived July 2020)
- If you can't use Dictation or type accented characters on your Mac
- If you installed Webroot SecureAnywhere, this can prevent those features from working.
(See article for how to fix this.)
- Spotlight helps you find what you're looking for
(now titled "Use Spotlight on your Mac")
- How to rebuild the Spotlight index on your Mac
(was titled "Spotlight: How to re-index folders or volumes")
Activity Monitor User Guide and Tips
- Activity Monitor User Guide Table of Contents
- How to use Activity Monitor on your Mac now goes to
Activity Monitor User Guide for macOS Big Sur.
- Check if your Mac needs more RAM in Activity Monitor
- View energy consumption in Activity Monitor on Mac
- If kernel_task is using a large percentage of your Mac CPU
About System Info, and 32-Bit Apps
- About System Information on your Mac
- Used to see a summary of information about your Mac hardware, software, and network.
- 32-bit app compatibility with macOS High Sierra 10.13.4 and later
- About the transition to 64-bit technology and how it affects 32-bit apps.
"When installing macOS, you may see a list of recently used apps that are 32-bit. You can review this list before deciding to continue installation. You may also see a prohibitory symbol over the icon of each 32-bit app in the Finder, letting you know that the app will not open.
(32-bit apps won't open in macOS 10.15 Catalina and later macOS versions.)
For all 32-bit apps, please contact the developer of the app to learn whether an updated version of their software is available or planned."
macOS Terminal Shell Changes in macOS Catalina (and later)
- How to use zsh as the default shell on your Mac
"Starting with macOS Catalina, your Mac uses zsh as the default login shell and interactive shell. You can make zsh the default in earlier versions of macOS as well."
Linked article covers how to change your default shell, how to use a different shell without changing the default,
how to switch to a zsh profile and prompt, how to test your shell scripts, and how to make zsh emulate sh.
Mac Files and Disk Storage Tips
- How to free up storage space on your Mac
- What is "Other" and "Purgeable" space in About This Mac Storage tab?
(now goes to See used and available storage space on your Mac.)
- See if your Mac shares space across APFS volumes in System Information
- If you see more than 1 disk in the Storage area of System Information, your internal disk has multiple volumes.
- How to use Pro Apps with Optimized Storage
- How to download content from iCloud when using Optimized Storage
Help using Mac Disk Utility
- Disk Utility User Guide (home page)
- How to repair a Mac disk with Disk Utility
- List of Topics for Disk Utility Help
- How to Repair a disk using Disk Utility on Mac
- How to choose between APFS and Mac OS Extended when formatting a disk for Mac
- now goes to How to erase your Intel-based Mac.
- How to erase a Mac with Apple silicon
- Mac OS Extended format (HFS Plus) volume and file limits (HT201711 no longer online)
Guides for some Apps included in macOS
- How to use Messages with your Mac
- Read books and more with Apple Books (app)
- How to Publish and sell books on Apple Books
- Listen to audiobooks in Apple Books (app)
- How to edit images and mark up PDFs with Preview on your Mac
- Now goes to Annotate a PDF in Preview on Mac.
- How to use Preview to combine PDFs on your Mac
- How to create a PDF in Pages, Numbers, and Keynote (archived Mar. 2018)
- Mac Basics: Notifications keep you informed (now titled "Use Notifications on your Mac")
- Mac Basics: Font Book (now titled "How to install and remove fonts on your Mac")
- Fonts included with macOS Big Sur
- Fonts included with macOS Catalina
- Use Maps on your Mac to find your destination (archived Apr. 2018)
(Using Maps on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch now goes to View maps on iPhone)
- How to Print documents from your Mac
- If you can't print from your Mac or iOS device
- Tip for Printer Problems with Apple M1 Chip Macs (run under Rosetta)
- If your HP printer doesn't work and you see a warning that HP software '...will damage your computer'
- USB printer troubleshooting for AirPort Express, AirPort Extreme, & Time Capsule (now archived)
- OS X: About graphic resolutions for inkjet and laser printers (HT202895 no longer online)
AirPrint (Wireless Printers)
- About AirPrint, with list of compatible printers, servers and USB-only devices.
- Connecting an AirPrint printer to your Wi-Fi network
- Use AirPrint to print from your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- OS X: How to connect to an IP-based printer or AppleTalk printer via IP (HT202167 no longer online)
- Mac OS X: Removing information about completed print jobs (HT201655 no longer online)
OS X Printer/Scanner Drivers and Software
- Printer and scanner drivers for Mac "This list is no longer updated."
(Often it's better to get software/updates from your Printer brand's website)
About Restrictions, Parental Controls and Screen Time
- How to use Screen Time on your Mac (in macOS Catalina or later)
- How to use Screen Time on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- If you forgot your Screen Time passcode
- Learn how to reset your passcode if you forgot it.
- How to use parental controls on your child's iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
- How to Use Restrictions in iTunes on your PC
(was titled "use Restrictions in iTunes on your Mac or PC". See below for restrictions on Mac using Screen Time.)
- Prevent in-app purchases from the App Store
(was titled "Use restrictions to prevent purchasing on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch")
- Learn how to restore your in-app purchases
- How to use Restrictions on your Apple TV
Sleep, Standby, Power Nap Info
(Owners of RAID card for Mac Pro/Xserves, see below for info on enabling sleep)
- Use the Energy Saver settings on your Mac now goes to
Change Energy Saver preferences on a Mac desktop computer
- Mac computer Status Indicator Light behavior (was "Sleep Indicator Light...")
(Updated to add info on Firmware recovery mode with M1 Chip Mac Mini.)
- Mac Pro (2019) status indicator light behavior
- If your Mac won't go to or stay in sleep
- Magnets in devices might cause your Mac notebook computer to sleep (archived Sept. 2020)
- If you see a progress bar when your Mac wakes from sleep now goes to "What is safe sleep on Mac?"
(Didn't want my Mac Mini to auto-shutdown after hours of sleep, so tried PMSET edits.)
- What is Power Nap on Mac?
- Turn Power Nap on or off on Mac
- Enhanced notifications that can wake your Mac (archived Sept. 2020)
- About standby on your Mac with list of supported Mac models. (archived Oct. 2017)
"Some Mac computers can conserve energy using the standby feature. When your Mac goes into standby mode, it saves your current session - your open applications, files, and windows - to your hard drive. Your Mac also turns off some of its hardware systems to save power.
Mac computers from 2013 or later enter standby after being in sleep mode for three hours. Earlier models enter standby after just over an hour of sleep."
Mac models that can use standby
- MacBook (2015 and later)
- MacBook Pro (2012 and later)
- MacBook Air (2010 and later)
- SSD and Fusion drive versions of Mac mini (2012 and later)
- SSD and Fusion drive versions of iMac (2012 and later)
- Mac Pro (Late 2013)
- If your MacBook Pro (Retina, 15-inch, Mid 2015) won't wake from sleep (archived Jan. 2020)
- Mid 2011 Mac mini & mini Server: Does not go to sleep when Thunderbolt to Ethernet Gigabit Adapter is connected (archived Feb. 2017)
- About Wake on Demand and Bonjour Sleep Proxy (HT201960 was archived, now replaced)
- Above link now goes to Share your Mac resources when it's in sleep.
(HT3789 article on "How to disable Bonjour service advertising without disabling DNS"
removed by Apple due to changes in OS X Yosemite and later.)
- If you're unable to resolve or bind to domains that end in .local (archived Jan 2017)
macOS/OS X Security Tips for your Mac
- Apple Platform Security (Hardware & Software)
- Apple Platform Security Table of Contents
- Listing of Apple Security Updates
- Mac models with the Apple T2 Security Chip
- About the read-only system volume in macOS Catalina (and later)
- About encrypted storage on your new Mac (for Macs with T2 chip)
- About Secure Boot (for Macs with Apple T2 Chip)
- About Startup Security Utility (for Macs with Apple T2 Chip)
- How to Change startup disk security settings on a Mac with Apple silicon
- About System Integrity Protection on your Mac (OS X El Capitan and later)
- Protecting Security Information (about Apple product security key, PGP)
- Recognize and avoid phishing messages, phony support calls, and other scams
FileVault Encryption Articles
- How to Use FileVault to encrypt the startup disk on your Mac
- How to Set a FileVault recovery key for Mac computers in your organization
- If the macOS installer says that some features of macOS are not supported for the disk (archived July 2020)
- The installer might say that some features aren't supported for the disk, that some features won't be available,
or that a recovery system can't be created.
- If your Encrypted External Drive Doesn't mount in macOS Big Sur 11.1
While using macOS Big Sur 11.1, your Mac with Apple T2 Security Chip has an issue that requires resetting the SMC.
System Preferences should accept your password after you reset the SMC.
Some Big Sur 11.1 users said this bug also affected Mounting External Encrypted Drives. (SMC reset fixed.)
Also saw posts a SMC reset fixed Touch ID problems after the Big Sur 11.1 update.
Gatekeeper and macOS Firewall info
- Safely open apps on your Mac (was titled "About Gatekeeper")
- How to Change Firewall preferences on Mac (newer article covers macOS Big Sur 11 to macOS High Sierra)
- About the application firewall (original article)
- About Activation Lock on your Mac
- How to Remove Activation Lock
- How to set a firmware password on your Mac
("Feature requires a Mac with Intel processor. For a Mac with Apple silicon, simply turn on FileVault". )
- Setting up firmware password protection on PowerPC-based Macs (HT1352 no longer online)
- How to enable the root user on your Mac or change your root password
- How to use private Wi-Fi addresses in iOS 14, iPadOS 14, and watchOS 7
About "Sign in with Apple"
- What is Sign in with Apple?
"A fast, easy, and more private way to sign in to third-party apps and websites..."
- Requires Two-factor authentication for your Apple ID.
- How to use Sign in with Apple
- Hide My Email for Sign in with Apple
- Manage the apps that you use with Sign in with Apple
- Security and your Apple ID
- Manage and use your Apple ID
- Two-factor authentication for Apple ID
- How to generate a recovery key
- Two-step verification for Apple ID
- Check your Apple ID device list to see where you're signed in
- How to use account recovery when you can't reset your Apple ID password
- Checklist: If you want to see if anyone else has access to your device or accounts
- If you think your Apple ID has been compromised
- Get help with security issues
- How to Report a security or privacy vulnerability
(was titled "Contact Apple About Security Issues")
If you want to disable or remove your Apple ID
- How to deactivate your Apple ID account
- How to delete your Apple ID account
- How to request access to a deceased family member's Apple accounts
- What is malware on Mac?
- Protect your Mac from malware
- How to block pop-up windows and handle persistent ads on Mac, iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
(was titled "Remove adware that displays pop-up ads and graphics on your Mac")
- About the "Are you sure you want to open it?" alert (File Quarantine / Known Malware Detection)
- How to avoid or remove Mac Defender malware in Mac OS X v10.6 or earlier
- Safety tips for handling email attachments and content downloaded from the Internet
- Recognize and avoid phishing messages, phony support calls, and other scams
Mac Privacy Tips
- Guard Your Privacy on Mac
- How to Set Privacy preferences on your Mac
- How to Browse privately in Safari for Mac
(and also Turn Private Browsing on or off on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch)
May 2019 Security Updates and Mitigations for Intel CPU Vulnerabilities
(Info below is from May 2019, before later macOS/Security Updates and before macOS 10.15 Catalina was released.)
- How to enable full mitigation for Microarchitectural Data Sampling (MDS) vulnerabilities
"This option is available for macOS Mojave, High Sierra, and Sierra after installing security updates."
(See section "How to enable full mitigation for MDS in macOS" in the above support article.)
- Additional mitigations for speculative execution vulnerabilities in Intel CPUs
"... security updates in macOS 10.14.5 to protect against speculative execution vulnerabilities in Intel CPUs...
(Above article has listing of "Unsupported Mac models" from 2009-2012. The only 2012 unsupported Mac listed is the Mac Pro. As mentioned in the Apple article, the reason those Macs are 'unsupported' is due to no microcode update for their CPUs from Intel. That is also why they are not supported by Apple for macOS 10.15 Catalina installs. (There are 'unofficial' (3rd party) macOS Installer patches on the web however, but no Intel microcode security patches for those CPUs to date.)
macOS 10.14.5 includes security updates for Safari, and the option to enable full mitigation...
Security Update 2019-003 High Sierra & Security Update 2019-003 Sierra include the option to enable full mitigation."
Apple Privacy Related Articles
- Apple ID & Privacy
- Apple Pay & Privacy
- Advertising & Privacy
- Apple Music & Privacy
- Game Center & Privacy
- App Store and Privacy
- About privacy information on the App Store and the choices you have to control your data
- Understand and control the personal information that you store with Apple
- About Location Services & Privacy
- Change Privacy preferences on your Mac
- Turn Location Services and GPS on or off on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- About privacy and Location Services in iOS and iPadOS
- Checklist: If you want to make sure no one else can see your location
Updating macOS and Apps
- Find out which macOS your Mac is using
- How to Update macOS on Mac
- About background updates in macOS
- If an error occurred while updating or installing macOS
- How to verify the authenticity of manually downloaded Apple Software Updates
Mac App Store Info/Troubleshooting
- Get help with the App Store on your Mac (was "Troubleshooting the Mac App Store")
- If you can't connect to the App Store, iTunes Store, or other Apple services
- Mac App Store: Finding your purchased apps
(now goes to "Redownload apps, music, movies, TV shows, and books.)
- See your purchase history in the App Store or iTunes Store
- If you don't see your in-app purchases
Listing and Downloads for Mac Firmware Updates (EFI/SMC)
- EFI and SMC firmware updates for Intel-based Macs (Archived) *NOT CURRENT* (Archived in 2017)
(No longer has downloads for latest updates & doesn't even list the latest firmware version numbers.)
- Firmware updates for Intel-based Macs require a GUID partition scheme (archived since March 2016)
Backing Up Your Files / Using Time Machine
- How to Back up your Mac with Time Machine
- How to Restore your Mac from a backup
- Restore items backed up with Time Machine on Mac
- If a Time Machine backup takes longer than you expect
- If Time Machine remains in the "preparing" stage on Mac
- If you can't back up or restore your Mac using Time Machine
- Other ways to back up and restore files
- About Time Machine local snapshots
("Starting with macOS High Sierra, an additional snapsnot is saved before installing any macOS update.")
- Backup disks you can use with Time Machine
- How to Transfer Time Machine backups from one backup disk to another
(was titled "How to transfer Time Machine backups from current backup drive to a new backup drive")
- Setting up Time Capsule for the first time (archived July 2019)
- How to move Time Machine backups from one AirPort Time Capsule to another (archived Aug 2019)
- How to verify, repair, or erase an AirPort Time Capsule drive using AirPort Utility (archived Sept 2020)
- Includes what to do if you're selling or giving away your AirPort Time Capsule.
- You can't install macOS on a Time Machine backup disk (HT203322 no longer online)
- The macOS installer is designed to prevent you from installing macOS on a Time Machine backup disk.
iMovie Tips & Info
- Update iMovie projects and events on a Mac
- Work with multiple libraries in iMovie on Mac
- iMovie (2013): Tips For iMovie '11 Users (now archived)
- iMovie (2013): Removing old libraries after updating
- iMovie supported Cameras, listed by Brand and Model
About QuickTime Player and Screen Recording (see below for DVD Player info)
- QuickTime Player User Guide and Table of Contents.
- How to record the screen on your Mac using the Screenshot toolbar or Quicktime Player.
- If an audio or video file doesn't play on Mac
(was titled "Media formats supported by QuickTime Player")
- If QuickTime Player converts legacy media files before playing them
- Installing QuickTime Player 7 on Mac OS X v10.6.3 to OS X El Capitan v10.11.6 (now archived)
(may help if you have older media formats or workflows that require an older version of QuickTime Player.)
iOS Devices & Macs that Support Continuity, Handoff, Instant Hotspot, Calling and SMS
- System requirements for Continuity on iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Macs (with supported models list)
- How to Use Continuity to connect your Mac, iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Apple Watch
- How to Use Handoff to continue tasks on your other devices
- How to use Continuity Camera on your Mac (with list of requirements)
Personal Hotspot and Instant Hotspot (Setup, Usage and Troubleshooting)
- How to set up a Personal Hotspot on your iPhone or iPad
- Use Instant Hotspot to connect to your Personal Hotspot without entering a password
- If Personal Hotspot is not working on your iPhone or iPad (Wi-Fi + Cellular)
About VPNs with macOS Catalina and iOS 13 or later
- VPN enhancements in iOS 13 and macOS Catalina (and later)
"Starting with iOS 13, IPsec supports HMAC-SHA-256 with IKEv1 VPN.
To make sure that your iOS 13 and macOS Catalina clients can connect to your IKEv1 or VPN server, configure the server to truncate the output of the SHA-256 hash to 128 bits. Truncating to a smaller number of bits might cause the server to drop data that VPN clients transmit."
Using macOS Network Utility, Network Locations and Ethernet Tips
- About Network Utility (included the App's location in various macOS versions)
- Above HT202790 now goes to macOS User Guide for macOS Big Sur.
- How to use network locations on your Mac (OS X v10.6 and later)
- Use Ethernet to connect two Mac computers
- Using network locations in OS X v10.5 or earlier (HT2712 no longer online)
- TCP and UDP ports used by Apple software products
- Ports used by Profile Manager in macOS Server
- How to use Apple products on enterprise networks
- About the application firewall
- Change Firewall preferences on Mac
- Updated info for users of macOS Big Sur 11 to macOS High Sierra.
- If the Ethernet connection on your Mac stopped working recently, follow these steps to restore it (Apple's article no longer online)
It included how to check System Information to find out which version of "Incompatible Kernel Extension Configuration Data" is installed. If you have version 3.28.1, you need an update.
- Mac OS X v10.4 and later: How to prevent .DS_Store file creation over network connections
(Link removed after HT1629 article no longer online. I saved a PDF copy when it was archived.)
10 Gigabit Ethernet (for some newer Macs)
- About the 10 Gigabit Ethernet port on Mac
- How to Use Gigabit Ethernet on Mac
Wireless Networking and Bluetooth (below are Bluetooth Tips)
- How to Manage the Wi-Fi connection on your Mac
- If your Mac doesn't connect to the Internet over Wi-Fi
- How to forget a Wi-Fi network on your iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, or Mac
- How to troubleshoot Wi-Fi connectivity (OS X 10.7.x and earlier) (archived Aug. 2019)
- Unable to join a Wi-Fi network with hidden SSID (Wi-Fi network name) (archived Aug. 2019)
Wi-Fi/AirPort Base Station Info and Tips
- How to reset your AirPort base station
- About AirPort base station status lights (LED) (archived Sept. 2020)
- AirPort base stations: How to view WAN and Wi-Fi MAC addresses (archived July 2019)
- Recommended settings for Wi-Fi routers and access points
- View and edit your Access Point Name (APN) on your iPhone and iPad
- Wi-Fi base stations: Extending the range of your wireless network by adding additional Wi-Fi base stations
- Can't add additional AirPort base stations to an extended network if MAC Address Access Control is enabled
- Wi-Fi base stations: Setting up and configuring an extended wireless network (802.11n) (archived Sept. 2020)
- Wi-Fi base stations: Setting up and configuring a roaming network (802.11 a/b/g/n) (archived Sept. 2020)
- Wi-Fi base stations: Setting up and configuring a Wireless Distribution System (802.11b/g) (archived Aug. 2019)
- Multiple physical network interfaces on the same subnet may cause routing issues (archived July 2016)
- AirPort Base Station: ISP provisioning may prevent Internet connection via broadband (cable or DSL) (archived Aug. 2019)
- AirPort base station: IPv6 Tunnel Error after installing firmware 7.6.3 in router/NAT mode (archived Aug. 2019)
- AirPort: Slow 802.11n connection speed when connected using older WEP or WPA security mechanisms
(HT201411 was archived Aug. 2019, no longer online)
About Apple WiFi Base Stations and USB Drives
- Using a USB drive with an AirPort base station with list of Base Station models. (archived Sept. 2020)
- Uses for the USB port of AirPort Time Capsule, AirPort Extreme, AirPort Express (archived Aug. 2017)
- How to mount an AirPort Extreme USB hard disk volume in Mac OS X and Windows (archived May 2016)
AirPort Express Info
- AirPort Express: What is client mode? (archived Aug. 2019)
- AirPort Express: How to join an existing Wi-Fi network in client mode (archived Sept. 2020)
- How to use an AirPort Express as an Ethernet to Wi-Fi bridge for a device without built-in Wi-Fi.
AirPort Base Firmware Updates and AirPort Utility Software
- How to Update the firmware on your AirPort base station
- For Info on AirPlay setup, see the AirPlay topic section
General Bluetooth Info and Tips
- How to use a Bluetooth mouse, keyboard, or trackpad with your Mac (archived March 2021)
- Learn about connecting Bluetooth input devices to your Mac, and get tips for using them.
- What's Bluetooth?
- Find out if your Mac has Bluetooth.
- About Bluetooth menu bar icons.
- Pair your Mac with a Bluetooth device.
- Remove a Bluetooth device from your Mac.
- Connect to Bluetooth devices after wake or startup.
- Wake your computer with Bluetooth devices.
- Connect multiple Bluetooth devices to one computer.
- Fix interference from other household devices.
- Press startup keys on a Bluetooth keyboard.
- How to Pair your iOS device or Mac with your Apple TV
- Bluetooth glossary of terms (and icons) (archived June 2017)
- Resolve Wi-Fi and Bluetooth issues caused by wireless interference
(was titled "Potential sources of Wi-Fi and Bluetooth interference")
- Bluetooth: Unreliable wireless performance may occur when USB 3.0 external devices are close (now goes to above article)
- If the sound from your wireless headphones cuts out or is distorted
- If sound quality is reduced when using Bluetooth headphones with your Mac
iPhone/iPad/iPod Touch related Wi-Fi & Bluetooth
- How to Use Bluetooth and Wi-Fi in Control Center
- Status icons and symbols on your iPhone - what they mean
- (How to) Use Airplane Mode on your iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Apple Watch
(Includes a section on how to use Wi-Fi and Bluetooth in Airplane Mode.)
- Make a call with Wi-Fi Calling
- About Wi-Fi Assist (iOS 9 or later)
- Connect to Wi-Fi on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- If your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch won't connect to a Wi-Fi network
- If you need help with your Wi-Fi password
- How to forget a Wi-Fi network on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
About Private Wi-Fi addresses (MAC address) Option
(If you see an unknown MAC address on your Wi-Fi network, check if "Private Address" is enabled.)
- How to use private Wi-Fi addresses in iOS 14, iPadOS 14, and watchOS 7
- About private Wi-Fi addresses and enterprise networks
- How to Set advanced network settings in the iOS Setup Assistant (enterprise, static, proxy settings)
- Use iOS Setup Assistant to set proxies or other advanced network configuration options for your enterprise environment.
- How to Use captive Wi-Fi networks on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- Captive Wi-Fi networks are public networks that you subscribe to or pay for.
- How to Pair a third-party Bluetooth accessory with your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- How to Pair your iPhone, iPad or iPod Touch with your Apple TV
- If you can't connect a Bluetooth accessory to your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- Bluetooth profiles that iOS and iPadOS support
- How to Use Maps and Bluetooth on your iPhone and iPad
- About the keyboards settings on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
- (How to) Split and move the keyboard on your iPad
- (How to) Use the floating keyboard on your iPad
iPhone/iPad/iPod Touch Control Center
- Access Control Center on your iPad
- Access and customize Control Center on your iPhone and iPod touch
- Apps, settings, and features that you can use from Control Center
Internet Setup, Tips & Troubleshooting (see above for Wireless networking setup)
- How to connect to the Internet with your Mac
- Mac OS X: Troubleshooting a cable modem, DSL, or LAN Internet connection (archived May 2014)
- iCloud Terms and Conditions (by Country)
File Sharing - Mac and iPhone, iPad, iPod touch
- How to Set up file sharing on Mac
- How to Use the Finder to share files between your Mac and your iPhone, iPad, iPod touch
- Includes info on using AirDrop, Handoff, or iCloud Drive to share files.
- How to Use Ethernet to connect two Mac computers
- Tips for Connecting to legacy AFP services in OS X Lion or later (archived July 2016)
- Use iTunes to share files between your computer and your iOS or iPadOS device
- If using macOS Catalina or later, use the Finder to share files between your computer & iOS or iPadOS device.
- Checklist: If you want to stop sharing with someone whom you previously shared with
- Adjust SMB browsing behavior in macOS High Sierra 10.13 and later
- How to disable SMB 1 or NetBIOS in macOS
- Learn how to disable SMB 1 or NetBIOS to prevent failover.
- this article is intended for enterprise and education system administrators.
Apple Remote Desktop
- What's new in Apple Remote Desktop
- Apple Remote Desktop: Configuring remotely via command line (kickstart)
(now titled "Use the kickstart command-line utility in Apple Remote Desktop")
- How to Uninstall or disable Apple Remote Desktop (HT201766 article no longer online)
About Safari, Plug-ins and Java
- For latest info on Safari, see www.apple.com/safari/
- How to update or reinstall Safari for your computer
- How to install Safari extensions on your Mac
- How to disable the Java web plug-in in Safari
- How to find saved passwords in Safari on your Mac
- Get Java for your Mac (DON'T install Java if you don't need it.)
- How to split screen in Safari on your iPad
- How to Use Multitasking on your iPad
Tips for Safari Problems
- If Safari can't open the page because too many redirects occurred
- If Safari doesn't open a webpage or isn't working as expected
- If your iCloud or Safari bookmarks aren't syncing
- Clear the history and cookies from Safari on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- If you see a "Not Secure" warning while browsing the web with Safari
(Don't enter personal info into sites that are not secure.)
Mac Email and iCloud Email Setup (See below for other iCloud info)
- How to Set up iCloud Mail on your devices
- How to Add an email account to Mail on your Mac (was "Use Mail on your Mac")
- Using your @icloud.com email address
- How to use the Mail app on your Mac to move, delete, or copy iCloud email
- Automatically manage connection settings in Mail on your Mac (archived March 2020)
- How to Sign or Encrypt emails in Mail on Mac
- Mail Drop Limits
- Mailbox size and message sending limits in iCloud
- Mail server settings for iCloud email clients
- Postmaster information for iCloud Mail
- iCloud: Configuring Mail with OS X v10.6 or iOS 4 (archived Dec. 2016)
- What to do if your email contains a winmail.dat attachment (HT201773 no longer online)
- If your iCloud mailbox is full
- Identify and filter junk mail in iCloud
- Why am I getting junk mail in iCloud? (archived June 2020)
- Recognize and avoid phishing messages, phony support calls, and other scams
(also see Identify legitimate emails from the App Store or iTunes Store)
- If iCloud Mail isn't working
- If you can't send or receive email on your Mac
- if Mail on your Mac keeps asking for your password
- How to use Mail Connection Doctor in Mail on Mac
Setup eMail Accounts on iPhone, iPad, or iPod Touch
- Add an email account to your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- How to Use mailboxes to organize emails on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
- What to do If you can't send or receive emails on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- How to Use Markup in Mail on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- How to delete emails on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
- Set up Exchange ActiveSync on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- iOS: Configuring additional outgoing mail servers (archived Jan. 2017)
- How to delete an app that has a configuration profile on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
(Sometimes apps that did this also created a mail account that could not be removed the usual way.)
RTT (Real-Time Text) Calls using macOS Mojave 10.14.2 and later
- Make and receive RTT (real-time text) calls on your Mac
(You can also Make and receive RTT calls on your iPhone with iOS 11.2 & later.)
FaceTime/iMessage for Mac and iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch
- How to use FaceTime on Mac
- How to use Group FaceTime on Mac (requires macOS Mojave or later)
- If FaceTime isn't working on your Mac
- If you use FaceTime and iMessage behind a firewall
- If you can't turn on or sign in to iMessage or FaceTime
- was titled "If you get an error when trying to activate iMessage or FaceTime".
- FaceTime for Mac: About HD video calling (archived Jan. 2017)
- Using FaceTime on iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- If you can't make a FaceTime call on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- About iMessage and SMS/MMS
- Use iMessage apps on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
- How to forward SMS/MMS text messages from your iPhone to your iPad, iPod touch or Mac
- How to use Messages on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- How to send a group message on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- If you can't send or receive messages on iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- Deregister iMessage on your iPhone or online
- How to use message effects with iMessage on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
(If you have Reduce screen motion on, you can't receive message effects.)
- How to use notifications on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
- If your Apple devices aren't getting Apple push notifications
- Add or remove your phone number in Messages or FaceTime
- How to Block phone numbers, contacts, and emails on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- Detect and block spam phone calls
- Send photo, video, or audio messages on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- How to Use Messages in iCloud (was titled "Keep all your messages in iCloud")
- How to use Business Chat to communicate with Apple and other businesses using Messages.
- How to use the Voice Memos app
- How to Use Digital Touch on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
"With iOS 10 and later, you can use Digital Touch to send sketches, taps, or a heartbeat from the Messages app."
Emoji, Animoji and Memoji on iPhones
- How to Use emoji on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
- How to Use Memoji on your iPhone or iPad Pro
Using Siri on iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch, Macs, HomePod, Apple Watch, Apple TV
- List of Devices that support "Hey Siri"
- How to use Siri on all your Apple devices
- How to Control your home with Siri
- Ask Siri to play and control video from your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
- Do More with Siri (was titled "Do more with Siri on HomePod")
- What to do if Siri or "Hey Siri" isn't working on your iPhone or iPad
- How to use Voice Control on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- How to turn off Classic Voice Control on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
About the Shortcuts App for iOS
- How to Run shortcuts with Siri, the Shortcuts app, or Siri Suggestions
- Apple's free Shortcuts App for iOS (iOS 12 or later)
"Shortcuts let you quickly do everyday tasks, and with the apps you use the most - all with just a tap or by asking Siri. Look for the Add to Siri button in your favorite apps or visit the Gallery in the Shortcuts app to add new shortcuts.
Can be used to make a shortcut to remove Metadata (EXIF) from Photos.
Learn more in the Shortcuts User Guide."
Help with Microphone Problems on iPhone or iPad
- If the microphones on your iPad aren't working.
- If the microphones on your iPhone aren't working.
What to do If the sound is unclear during phone calls, during FaceTime calls, in video recordings, or in apps.
Troubleshooting and Performance Tips for iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch
- About iOS performance on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- "If your iOS device is slow or freezes, try these tips."
- If an app on your iPhone or iPad stops responding, closes unexpectedly, or won't open
- If you can't download or update apps on your iPhone or iPad
- How to manually update apps on your Apple device
- How to get updated time zone information for your Apple device
- If you can't change the time or time zone on your iPhone, iPad or iPod touch
Connecting and Using Scanners and Cameras
- If your built-in camera isn't working on your Mac
- List of Cameras supported by iMovie for macOS
- List of Cameras supported by Final Cut Pro
- Scan images or documents using your Mac
- Set up a scanner to use with Mac
- Solve scanning problems on Mac
(Your printer brand's website/support page may also have scanner software that better supports its features.
Check there for software/driver updates as some macOS updates may affect function.)
- How to Use Continuity Camera on your Mac
(See requirements for usage. Requires macOS Mojave or later on Mac & iOS 12 or later on iOS device.)
- Insert photos and scans with Continuity Camera on Mac
- If the camera or flash on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch isn't working
- How to use camera modes on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
- How to record the screen on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- How to Scan a QR code with your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- How to Take and Edit photos with your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
- How to Take and Edit Live Photos
Aperture Help & Tips
- Migrate your Aperture library to the Photos app or Adobe Lightroom Classic
"Aperture won't run in versions of macOS after macOS Mojave.
Here's how to move your Aperture libraries to Photos or Adobe Lightroom Classic..."
(See article for more details.)
- Aperture 3: Support resources (archived Sept. 2020)
- Some links in the this article are no longer online as of 2020.
Tips/Guides for macOS Photos app
- Photos User Guide
- Apple Photos support home page
- Photo editing basics in Photos on Mac
- How to Designate a System Photo Library in Photos
- How to How to use the Photos Repair Library on your Mac
- Using the iPhoto Library Upgrader tool
- If Photos won't open a library that you already migrated
- If Photos can't copy or create a library (archived Sept. 2020)
- How to edit with third-party apps and extensions in Photos for macOS and iOS.
- How to add photos and videos from the Photos app to your iMovie project
- How to Adjust the size of your Photos library to store it in iCloud Photo Library (archived Feb. 2020)
(See below for Tips/Guides on iCloud Photo Library)
- Use the People album in Photos on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- How to Tag faces in Photos to find people on all your devices (HT204480 no longer online)
- How to Get iPhoto 9.6.1 if you didn't update before OS X 10.10.3 (Tips from apple forum)
- You can also check Apple's Photos user forum and Apple's Photography page (covers iOS and Macs).
Guides and Tips for Final Cut Pro X, Motion, Compresor & Logic Pro X
- Accept preinstalled Pro Apps on your new Mac
"You might need to accept some apps in the App Store before you can update them.
These apps include preinstalled apps that aren't part of macOS, such as FinalCut and MainStage."
- About Final Cut Pro
- Back up Final Cut Pro 10.1 or later
- Resolve an issue in Final Cut Pro
- Final Cut Pro X Training resources
- Final Cut Pro X Support resources
- Get user guides for Final Cut Pro X, Motion 5, and Compressor 4
- Final Cut Pro X, Motion 5, Compressor 4: Installation best practices
(Apple removed the HT202240 article.)
- How to Back up Final Cut Pro X 10.1 or later
(Article HT202633 on backing up version 10.0 to 10.0.9 no longer online.)
- Cameras supported by Final Cut Pro X
- Graphics card compatibility for Final Cut Pro X, Motion 5, and Compressor 4
- Final Cut Express: Troubleshooting Basics (TS2611 now archived)
- Final Cut Pro X, Motion 5, Compressor 4: Issues updating via the Mac App Store (HT203532 no longer online)
- Logic Pro X, MainStage 3: Deploying across multiple Mac systems using Apple Remote Desktop, NetInstall, or NetRestore (archived)
- Final Cut Pro X, Motion 5, Compressor 4: Install on multiple systems via Apple Remote Desktop, NetInstall, or NetRestore
(HT201115 article was archived, but now no longer online)
- Reducing latency in MainStage 3
(How to minimize audio latency - 3 settings that influence the amount of latency for the system.)
- About Apple ProRes
- About Apple ProRes RAW
(As of 2019, the following 5 articles now go to support.apple.com/final-cut-pro.)
- How to Use 3D Text in Final Cut Pro
- How to Use clip effects in Final Cut Pro
- How to Import media in Final Cut Pro
- How to Manage libraries in Final Cut Pro
- How to Create and modify share destinations in Final Cut Pro
Logic Pro Tips
- If Logic Pro isn't working
- How to Back up Logic Pro
- Avoid system overloads in Logic Pro
- Manage Logic Pro input monitoring latency
- Optimize Alchemy for improved performance
- DVD Studio Pro: Troubleshooting Basics (TS2610 article now archived)
- Motion 4: Troubleshooting basics (HT1885 was archived, now no longer online)
- Soundtrack Pro 3: Troubleshooting Basics (HT3659 was archived, now no longer online)
Audio, Music, CD, DVDs, and Optical Media Sharing
- DVD or CD Sharing Using Remote Disc (archived)
- now titled "Use the CD or DVD drive from another computer with your Mac"
(no longer has the long list of Incompatible Discs)
Apple USB SuperDrive Related
- Mac computers that can use an Apple USB SuperDrive or MacBook Air SuperDrive
- now titled simply "How to connect the Apple USB SuperDrive".
- A M1 Mini owner said the USB-A ports didn't work with his Superdrive, but it did here. (CD/DVD Playback with 2012 (A1379) SuperDrive.)
(A M1 Mac owner using Apple USB-C to USB adapter said there wasn't enough power to write discs with his 2007 Superdrive.)
- Get help with the slot-loading SuperDrive on your Mac computer (archived Dec. 2020)
(Old compatibility mod (IF enough USB power supplied) was sudo nvram boot-args="mbasd=1" from terminal.
This NVRAM trick DOES NOT work with Apple Silicon M1 chip Macs.)
- Mac notebooks with optical drives: Noises from the optical drive with recordings of example noises.
(Link removed as HT201623 article no longer online as of August 2017.)
(The 3 guides below were listed as 'archived, no longer updated, but now removed)
- OS X Mavericks: How to Burn a CD or DVD (PH13924 no longer online)
- OS X Mavericks: How to Burn a CD or DVD in the Finder (PH13824 no longer online)
- OS X Mavericks: How to create and use a Burn Folder (PH14048 no longer online)
How to add Disc Eject to the OS X Menu Bar
In the Finder navigate to /System/Library/Core Services/Menu Extras and double click the Eject.menu item.
(FYI:, this tip may not work in later macOS versions.)
About macOS DVD Player
- Play a DVD or DVD movie file in DVD Player on Mac
- DVD Player User Guide for macOS Big Sur
- DVD Player: About DVD-Video regions (was archived, now HT201705 no longer online)
- How to Turn on closed captions and subtitles on your Mac
(now goes to "Change subtitles or languages for videos in the Apple TV app or iTunes Store")
- Setting up iTunes and DVD Player for digital surround sound (link removed after article pulled)
- was archived, but as of 2019, the article HT202029 is no longer online.
(Also see my notes on Setting Up OS X Apple DVD Player to Output 5.1/7.1 Surround Sound to a HDMI Receiver)
Audio Interfaces, Input and Output Tips
- Audio MIDI Setup: How to test for MIDI function (now titled simply "Test your MIDI setup")
- How to Set up audio devices on iMac (Mid 2014) and later
(bottom of page "Learn More" has links to 3 MIDI articles that are no longer online.)
- How to Play high sample rate digital audio on Mac computers (with list of supported Macs)
- How to Combine Multiple Audio Interfaces for Multi-Output or an Aggregate Device
(now titled "Combine multiple audio interfaces by creating an Aggregate Device")
- Audio Midi Setup: Set up external speakers for stereo or surround sound (PH5164 was archived, now no longer online)
- If the internal speakers on your Mac aren't working
- Set up an audio device on your Mac or stream music from your Mac (HT201739 no longer online)
- article originally was "Connecting your Mac to a home stereo, iPod, iPad, musical instruments or speakers".
- Here's My Guide to Setting up a Mac to send 5.1/7.1 Surround Sound using HDMI to an A/V Receiver or HDTV
- MacBook/MacBook Pro 13": How to use the combination audio port for an audio input device (now archived)
- Mac Pro (Early 2009 through Mid 2012): Audio may not switch when new devices are connected (now archived)
- Mac Bluetooth headset FAQ (now archived)
Enabling Audio Descriptions (to have scenes in videos described to you)
- How to Turn on audio descriptions on your Apple TV
- How to Turn on audio descriptions on your Mac
- How to Turn on audio descriptions on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- How to Turn on audio descriptions on iPod nano
- How to Turn on audio descriptions in iTunes for Windows
- How to Find audio-described content in the Apple TV app or iTunes Store
Audio Tips for iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch
- How to switch the audio on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch (now goes to Use AirPlay to stream audio)
- If you hear no sound or distorted sound from your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch speaker
- What to do if your iPhone is stuck in headphone mode
- How to use Do Not Disturb on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
- iMovie for iOS, GarageBand for iOS: Cannot send audio via HDMI with the Apple Digital AV Adapter (HT203439) article no longer online but said "Upgrade to GarageBand for iOS 1.0.1 (or later) and iMovie for iOS 1.2.1 or later" to fix.
- How to use CarPlay with your iPhone
- How to connect your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch to your car
- Play music, podcasts, audiobooks, and news in your car
- How to use Do Not Disturb While Driving
iTunes Basics (see below for iTunes Store topics)
- How to Update to the latest version of iTunes
- What happened to iTunes? (not in macOS 10.15 Catalina and later)
"With macOS Catalina (and later), your iTunes media library is now available in the Apple Music app, Apple TV app, Apple Books app, and Apple Podcasts app. And Finder is where you can manage and sync content on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch..."
- Use the Finder to sync your iPhone, iPad, or iPod with your computer (macOS Catalina or later)
- Switch libraries with the Music app or Apple TV app in macOS Catalina (macOS Catalina or later)
- Use iTunes to sync your iPhone, iPad, or iPod with your computer
- Sync your iPhone, iPad, or iPod using your computer
(Below are iTunes related support articles for users of macOS 10.14 and earlier.)
- Apple's iTunes Home page
- Changes in iTunes 12.7 (archived as of Sept. 2018)
- How to Share your iTunes library over a home network
(now goes to Use Home Sharing to share media from a computer to other devices)
- How to Use AirPlay to stream audio (previously titled "How to AirPlay audio")
Download iTunes 12.6.5 with Built-In App Store (version updated Sept. 12th, 2018)
- Apple's Deploy apps in a business environment with iTunes (archived Aug 2019)
includes a link to download iTunes 12.6.5 with built-in App store.
(I assume v12.6.5 supports iOS 12 devices. The 12.6.4 update allowed syncing of iOS 11.3 (and later) devices, which v12.6.3 didn't.)
iTunes for OS X 10.6.x and earlier
Current iTunes versions don't support OS X 10.6.x users, but here's iTunes 11.4 for OS X 10.6.
(FYI to PowerPC Mac owners, iTunes 10.6.3 was last version with PPC support. Per a note down the page Apple doc TS3258 (later pulled), the last compatible iTunes version for OS X 10.5.x is iTunes 10.6.3 and for OS X 10.4.x it's iTunes 9.2.1.)
About iTunes Library and Media Files
- About iTunes library files (Library.itl, iTunes Library.xml) (now goes to https://support.apple.com/itunes)
- How to Locate and Organize your iTunes media files (now goes to Back up and restore your iTunes library on your PC.)
- If your videos from iTunes can't be played on your iPhone, iPad, iPod, or Apple TV (HT203180 was archived, now no longer online.)
- How to Back up and Restore your iTunes media library (now titled "Back up and restore your iTunes library on your PC")
- How to move your iTunes library to a new computer (now goes to above article)
- How to find and remove duplicate items in your iTunes library (now goes to Delete music, movies, and TV shows from your device.)
- How to Delete photos and video synced from iTunes when you can't access the originals (HT204120 was archived, now no longer online)
- Sync your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch with iTunes using Wi-Fi (now goes to Sync your iPhone, iPad, or iPod using your computer.)
- Use the Finder to sync your iPhone, iPad, or iPod with your computer (macOS Catalina and later)
- Sync media between your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch and iTunes on your Mac or PC (now goes to Turn on Sync Library with Apple Music)
Tips for iTunes Problems and Finder Errors
- Resolve USB-related alerts in iTunes
- If you see an error in Finder or iTunes on your computer
- Find an iTunes or the Finder error code (Error code numbers and troubleshooting)
- If you see error -54 when you sync with your computer (was "If you see error -54 when you sync with iTunes")
- If you see error -5000, -69, 13010, or 13014 when you sync music from your Mac (was "... when you sync music in iTunes".)
- Resolve issues between iTunes and third-party security software
- Troubleshooting issues with third-party iTunes plug-ins (HT203395 no longer online)
- If you see Error 3194, Error 17, or 'This device isn't eligible for the requested build' on your computer (was "in iTunes")
(Includes info on how to check your Hosts file)
- About iTunes for Windows background processes
- was titled "About macOS, iOS, and iTunes server host connections and iTunes background processes".
Apple Music (Streaming) Service
- Apple Music Features
- How to Join Apple Music
- How to How to cancel Apple Music
- Availability of Apple Media Services
- How to Change your subscription from Apple
(was "Manage your Apple Music subscription")
- Listen to music and more in the Apple Music app
- How to Listen to the radio in the Apple Music app
- How to Add and download music from Apple Music
- How to Turn on Sync Library with Apple Music
(was titled "Sync Apple Music across your iPhone, iPad, iPod touch and computer")
- If songs are missing from your music library after you turn on Sync Library
- See time-synced lyrics in Apple Music on your Mac
- See time-synced lyrics on your iPad
- See time-synced lyrics on your Apple TV
- See time-synced lyrics in Apple Music on your iPhone, iPod touch, or Android device
Apple Music Lossless Audio & Dolby Atmos
- About lossless audio in Apple Music
- See "How to listen to lossless" on iPhone/iPad, Macs, & Apple TV 4K, and the FAQ.
- About spatial audio with Dolby Atmos in Apple Music
- How to listen to Dolby Atmos on iPhone, iPad, Macs, & Apple TV 4K, plus a FAQ.
Apple Music for Android Info
- Join Apple Music on your Android
- Download the Apple Music app if your country, region, or device doesn't have Google Play
(See above for general info on Apple Music service.)
Move from an Android Device to iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- How to Move from Android to iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch using "Move to iOS" app (from google play store)
iTunes Store/App Store Purchases, Playback and Accounts (see below for Info on payment methods.)
- Apple Media Services Terms and Conditions (USA)
- How apps, content, and subscriptions from Apple are billed
- Availability of Apple Media Services
(was titled "What can I buy from the iTunes Store in my country?")
- If you see 'apple.com/bill' on your billing statement
(was titled "If you see apple.com/bill, itunes.com/bill, or an unfamiliar charge on your statement")
- If you see a message that says 'Your account has been disabled in the App Store and iTunes'
- If you can't access the App Store or other Apple media services, or can't edit your payment information
(was titled "About App Store and iTunes Store availability")
"On May 25, 2018, Apple will introduce security changes that prevent Windows XP or Vista PCs and Apple TV (1st generation) from using the iTunes Store." (Some Apple TV gen 1 users had already reported no support with iTunes 12.7.)
- Redeem digital copies of DVDs or Blu-rays in the Apple TV app or iTunes for Windows
- Redeem your App Store & iTunes Gift Card
- If you can't redeem your Apple Gift Card or App Store & iTunes Gift Card
- Gift apps, music, movies, and more from Apple
- What type of gift card do I have?
- Request a refund for apps or content that you bought from Apple
- Check your Apple Account balance
- How to delete music, movies, and TV shows from your device
- How to redownload apps, music, movies, TV shows, and books
- If there's an issue when you redownload apps, movies, or other content from Apple
- what to do if you can't redownload an item or if you don't see the item in your purchases.
- Bundle Apple subscriptions with Apple One
- What happens to your iCloud storage plan when you sign up for Apple One
- If you subscribe to Apple One and use a different Apple ID for iCloud storage
- How to cancel a subscription from Apple
- If the subscription that you want to cancel is not listed
- Get help with subscriptions not billed through Apple
About Apple Account Payment Methods (and using "None")
- How to create or use an Apple ID without a payment method
- If your payment method is declined in the App Store or iTunes Store
- How to Change, add or remove your Apple ID payment methods
- If you can't remove your last payment method or use no payment method with your Apple ID
(was titled "If you can't choose None when you edit your Apple ID payment information".)
Apple also noted some older operating systems are no longer able to change payment methods:
"If you can't change your payment method in the App Store or iTunes Store
The above was from an earlier version of HT208104, but that article has since been revised - see the later comments in
On June 30, 2018, Apple will implement changes to continue to ensure your financial data is protected when you make purchases on the iTunes Store or App Store. As a result of the changes, you will no longer be able to change your Apple ID payment information from devices using the following versions of Apple software:
If you're using one of these versions on your device and need to change your payment method, update your device to the latest version of the software... Or edit your payment information on a different device that uses more recent software."
- iOS 4.3.5 or earlier
- macOS 10.8.5 or earlier
- Apple TV Software 6.2.1 or earlier*
(* All Apple TV (2nd generation) devices are affected.)
If you can't open the App Store or iTunes Store, buy content, or edit payment information.
"If you can't open the App Store or iTunes Store, buy content, or edit payment information
You might be using out-of-date software or hardware.
Some devices that use older software can no longer use the iTunes Store.
Some obsolete hardware products can no longer use the iTunes Store.
(see linked page above for more info.)
Authorizing your Computer for Protected Content Playback
- How to Authorize or deauthorize your computer for iTunes Store purchases
- If iTunes repeatedly prompting to authorize your computer when you try to play purchases
(above article now includes "Windows" in title - no longer has Mac info.)
- How to view and remove your associated devices for purchases
- Missing Shared folder or incorrect permissions may prevent iTunes authorization (article no longer online)
Tips/Help for iTunes Store/App Store Problems and Error Codes
- If you can't connect to the App Store, iTunes Store, or other Apple services (was "Advanced iTunes Store Troubleshooting")
- If you see error 0x80090318 when you try to open the iTunes Store (HT204550 no longer online)
- If you see a -45054 or -42110 error in iTunes
- "Learn how to fix a -45054 or -42110 error. If files or folders that iTunes uses to download purchases are restricted,
you might see an alert message that reads:
"We could not complete your iTunes Store request. An unknown error has occurred (-45054)."
"We could not complete your iTunes Store request. An unknown error has occurred (-42110)."
Apple TV app Movie Rentals and Purchases
- How to Rent movies from the Apple TV app
- How to Download and stream shows and movies from Apple TV+ and Apple TV channels
- How to Buy movies and TV shows from the Apple TV app
(was titled "Download or stream movies and TV shows from the iTunes Store.")
Mac Models that Support HDR
- Play HDR video on Mac
- Mac models that support HDR video on HDR10-compatible displays, including TVs & projectors.
- If an HDR display is too bright or vivid on Mac
- Find movies with 4K, HDR, Dolby Vision, or Dolby Atmos in the Apple TV app
("You can download a copy of an HD movie to your iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, Mac, or PC, but you can't download a 4K version. You might be able to download Dolby Vision and HDR versions to your iOS, iPadOS, and macOS devices.")
- If you can't watch or stream movies and TV shows in the Apple TV app
(was titled "If you can't stream or watch movies or TV shows from the Apple TV app, iTunes Store, or third-party apps".)
- How to Change subtitles or languages for videos in the Apple TV app or iTunes Store
- How to Check if movies and TV shows have accessibility features in the Apple TV app
(was titled "Find audio-described content in the Apple TV app or iTunes Store".)
(Also see Causes and Tips for HDCP Errors playing iTunes Store Protected Content.)
- Connect your Apple ID to your Movies Anywhere account
(was "About Disney Movies Anywhere and iTunes Store")
- If you can't view your iTunes Extras
About iTunes Match
- How to Subscribe to iTunes Match
iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch Syncing with Computer, iTunes, or iCloud
- About the 'Trust This Computer' alert on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- Locate and view your connected device on your computer
- Sync your iPhone, iPad, or iPod using your computer
- Use iTunes to sync your iPhone, iPad, or iPod with your computer
- Manually manage content on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch using iTunes (archived Aug. 2020)
- How to use multiple iPhone, iPad, or iPod devices with one computer (HT201572 no longer online.)
Troubleshooting iPhone, iPad or iPod Touch Not Recognized by Computer or iTunes
- What to do If your computer doesn't recognize your iPhone, iPad, or iPod
(was titled "if iTunes doesn't recognize your iPhone, iPad, or iPod".)
- If your Windows PC doesn't recognize your iPhone, iPad, or iPod
- If you see "Software update is required to connect to your iOS device" on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- If your iOS 12 device isn't recognized by iTunes, you might need to upgrade macOS or iTunes (HT209142 no longer online)
iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch Update and Restore
- How to update your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- What to do if you need more space for an update
- What to do If you see the Restore screen on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- How to check the storage on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
- How to uninstall iOS beta software (if you installed a Beta version)
- Manually update your carrier settings on your iPhone or iPad
- How to clear Other storage on your iPhone or iPad
"If you have iOS or iPadOS 13, your iPhone or iPad storage is full, and the storage is mostly taken up by "Other" storage, update your device to iOS or iPadOS 13.6.1 or later.
Update your device
An issue in iOS or iPadOS 13 might prevent the system from freeing up storage for you.
To fix this issue, update your iPhone or iPad to iOS or iPadOS 13.6.1 or later.
If you don't have enough available storage to update wirelessly, update your device
to iOS or iPadOS 14.1 or later using a computer."
- If your iPhone, iPad or iPod touch won't update (was titled "Get help with over-the-air iOS updates")
- List of iOS update and restore errors
- If you see error 53 when you update or restore your iPhone or iPad
- If you can't update or restore your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- If you see an error when you update or restore your iPhone, iPad, or iPod
- If you can't back up your iOS or iPadOS device to a computer or restore it from a backup
(was titled "If your iTunes backup couldn't be completed or you can't restore from a backup")
- If you can't back up to iCloud
- If restore from iCloud backup failed
- About Apple logo with progress bar after updating or restoring iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- How to get updated time zone information for your Apple device
- If you can't change the time or time zone on your iPhone, iPad or iPod touch
- What's in "Others" category in your iCloud storage
- About encrypted backups on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
(was titled "About encrypted backups in iTunes" - now also covers backups in Finder with macOS Catalina.)
- Locate backups of your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch (was "find and manage your iTunes backups")
- How to Restore your iPhone, iPad, or iPod to factory settings
(was titled "Use iTunes to restore your iOS device to factory settings")
AirPlay Setup and Troubleshooting
- AirPlay system requirements (includes AirPlay 2 and compatible devices/speakers)
- How to AirPlay audio
- How to use AirPlay to display video from your Mac on an HDTV via an Apple TV.
- (How to) Play audio to multiple speakers with AirPlay
- (How to) Add and manage TVs and speakers in the Home app
- Use AirPlay to stream video or mirror your device's screen
- What to do If AirPlay or screen mirroring isn't working on your device
(includes Mac, iPad, iPhone, Apple TV)
- How to set up AirPlay on your Apple TV
(now titled "About AirPlay restrictions and Conference Room mode on your Apple TV")
- How to set up and configure AirPort Express for AirPlay and iTunes
- AirPlay mirroring might stop or drop connection on older 802.11 b/g networks
Info on AirDrop for Macs and iPhone/iPad/iPod Touch
- How to use AirDrop to send files from your Mac to nearby Macs and iOS devices
- How to Share content with AirDrop from your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
Sharing iTunes Music/Videos, Home Sharing Setup & Troubleshooting
- Get Help with Home Sharing for iTunes libraries (was "Troubleshooting Home Sharing")
- How to Share your iTunes library over your home network
- How to Use Home Sharing to share media from a computer to other devices
(was titled "Use Home Sharing to share iTunes content with other devices")
- Adjust SMB browsing behavior in macOS (macOS High Sierra 10.13 and later)
- Share GarageBand for iOS songs or Music Memos to YouTube now goes to Share songs with GarageBand for iPad
- What is Family Sharing?
- How to set up Family Sharing
- Share your location with your family
- About Family purchases and payments
- Request and make purchases with Ask to Buy
- Share iTunes, Apple Books, and App Store purchases with Family Sharing
- What types of content can I share with Family Sharing?
- If you don't see your family's shared content
- Family Sharing and Apple ID for your child
- How to Leave Family Sharing
Back to My Mac Setup and Troubleshooting
- How to transition from Back to My Mac
"Learn how to transition to iCloud Drive, screen sharing, and Apple Remote Desktop."
- Set up and use Back to My Mac now goes to How to transition from Back to My Mac
- Get help using Back to My Mac now goes to How to transition from Back to My Mac
- Resolve Back to My Mac status messages in iCloud preferences now goes to How to transition from Back to My Mac
- Get help with multiple-NAT configurations for Back to My Mac now goes to How to transition from Back to My Mac
Mac Displays/Monitor/TV Tips and Troubleshooting (see below for Cables/Display Adapters)
- How to Use True Tone on your Mac (with Retina Displays or Pro Display XDR)
- How to use Night Shift on your Mac (with system requirements)
- How to Connect a display to your Mac
(originally titled "How to use multiple displays with your Mac")
- How to use two Mac apps side by side in Split View with OS X El Capitan or later.
- If your external display isn't detected or appears blurry on your Mac
(was titled "Get help with video problems on external displays connected to your Mac",
was originally titled "Troubleshooting internal and external displays".)
- How to Use multiple displays with your Mac Pro (2019)
- How to use multiple displays with your Mac Pro (Late 2013) (archived Dec. 2019)
- How to use multiple displays with Windows on your Mac Pro (Late 2013) (archived Dec. 2019)
- How to connect multiple displays to your iMac Pro
- How to Use multiple displays with your MacBook Pro (16-inch, 2019)
- How to connect multiple displays to your 2018 Mac mini
- Above HT209224 article now goes to 2018 Mac mini Technical Specifications.
- How to use your iPad as a second display for your Mac with Sidecar
- See list of requirements and compatible Macs and iPad models.
(See Boot Camp section for info on running Windows on a Mac)
- Mac Pro (Early 2009, Mid 2010, Mid 2012): Supported display configurations (archived Jan. 2017)
- Mac Pro (Early 2009, Mid 2010, Mid 2012): Issues with 3 displays and multiple DVI, HDMI connections (archived Jan. 2017)
- FYI Here's our page with Late 2013 Mac Pro How-To/Upgrade Guides & Tips including display configurations.
- How to use your Mac notebook computer in closed-display mode with an external display
Using an iMac as an External Display (via ThunderBolt/MDP) Target Display Mode
- Use your iMac as a display with Target Display Mode (was archived Apr. 2020)
(Includes list of compatible 2009-2014 iMacs - but not Late 2014 27-inch 5K Retina iMac.)
"Target display mode requires macOS High Sierra or earlier on the iMac used as the external display.
It does not work with macOS Mojave or later."
(Target Display Mode will not work with newer Macs that can't run macOS High Sierra.)
Settings and Tips for Using Apple Pro Display XDR, 4K/5K Displays, Ultra HDTVs with Macs
- (How to) Set up and use Apple Pro Display XDR
- Includes list of compatible Macs and info on how to attach the Pro Stand or VESA Mount Adapter.
- (How to) Use reference modes with your Apple Pro Display XDR
- Includes how to create custom reference modes specific to your needs.
- What's new in firmware updates for Apple Pro Display XDR
- v4.2.37 released Dec 14, 2020, requires macOS 10.15.6 or later.
- Measuring and calibrating Apple Pro Display XDR
- Fine-tune the calibration of your Pro Display XDR on Mac
- (How to) Change the refresh rate on your 16-inch MacBook Pro or Apple Pro Display XDR
- How to use Pro Display XDR with Boot Camp
- (How to) Use the 23.7-inch LG UltraFine 4K Display with your Mac or iPad (see requirements)
- (How to) Use the LG UltraFine 5K Display with your Mac or iPad (see requirements)
- (How to) Use the 21.5-inch LG UltraFine 4K Display with your Mac (archived Apr. 2020)
- Using 4K displays, 5K displays, and Ultra HD TVs with your Mac
- As of March 2020, HT206587 above now goes to HT202351 Use external monitors with your Mac.
(As of 2021, the above HT206587 article is now titled "Connect a display to your Mac".)
- About overscan and underscan on your Mac, Apple TV, or other display
- What are Letterboxing, Pillarboxing and Windowboxing? (archived July 2016)
Calibrating your Mac Display
- How to Calibrate your Mac display
- if an HDR display is too bright or vivid on Mac
Apple Display Troubleshooting
- Get help with video problems on external displays connected to your Mac
- Apple computers: Black screen or unresponsive Mini DisplayPort display after sleep (archived July 2016)
- Included a note to make sure Mini DisplayPort adapters are Vesa 1.1 compliant.
- If the power light on your Apple flat-panel display is flashing (PH13995 no longer online)
- If you changed your display's resolution and now there's no picture (PH25438 no longer online)
- Mac Mini (late 2012 and later): Doesn't wake display after sleep (archived Jan. 2017)
"When waking your Mac mini (Late 2012 or later) from Safe Sleep, you may notice that the sleep indicator light turns on and the system wakes but your display doesn't. This can occur if you have FileVault enabled.
To work around this issue, you can enter your password even while the display is dark. Then, press Enter. This should log you in and wake the display.
Using Projectors with OS X (I kept PDF copies of the following)
- How to Use Projector Calibrator in macOS (HT204126 was archived, now no longer online)
- "If your third-party display or projector doesn't work in OS X" (HT203514 was archived, now no longer online.)
- They do this so often it's frustrating. They should keep archived articles, not remove them.
How to Adjust Brightness on a Second Apple Cinema Display
With an Apple keyboard, hold the Control key down while pressing the Brightness key.
(IIRC it was the Control key instead of Option but don't have a 2nd display to test now.)
eGPU - External Graphics Card in Thunderbolt Chassis
- How to use an external graphics processor with your Mac
Requires macOS 10.13.4 or later, and a supported Thunderbolt 3 equipped Intel-based Mac.
Article has a list of supported eGPU configurations - Thunderbolt 3 chassis & graphics cards.
"eGPUs are supported by any Mac with an Intel processor and Thunderbolt 3 ports, running macOS High Sierra 10.13.4 or later."
Article also has notes on app support and link to developer page on coding apps to support eGPUs.
See Footnotes at bottom of linked page for info on specific configurations/issues.
- How to use Blackmagic eGPU with your Mac
About Metal/Metal 2 Support (Graphics API)
- Mac computers that support Metal in OS X El Capitan and later.
- Although not listed in the article, Metal/Metal 2 support is shown in System Info on pre-2013 Mac Pro Towers
with a Graphics card that supports Metal installed with a compatible OS. See System Info screenshots on our page
of reports on Sapphire Pulse Radeon RX 580 8GB in Mac Pros running macOS 10.12.6 or later, including High Sierra.
- About graphics card compatibility between Mac Pro models (only lists OEM cards)
- Mac computers that use OpenCL and OpenGL graphics (archived July 2020)
Setting Graphics Performance on MacBook Pros with onboard and discrete GPUs
- MacBook Pro: How to determine which graphics processor is in use
- MacBook Pro & MacBook Pro with Retina display computers: How to set graphics performance
- MacBook Pro (15", Late 2008), (17", Early 2009), (15"/17", Mid 2009): How to set graphics performance (archived Jan. 2017)
Info on Apple Display Defects, Bad Pixels, Avoiding IR/Burn In, Etc
- Avoiding image persistence on Apple displays (archived Sept 2020)
- About LCD display pixel anomalies for Apple products released in 2010 and later
- About LCD display pixel anomalies for Apple products released before 2010
- Learn more about Using an Apple Retina display
- About the Liquid Retina XDR display on iPad Pro
- Do not use palm rest or keycap covers on a Mac notebook with a Retina display
"Leaving any material on the top case (keyboard and palm rest area) could result in damage to the display when you close it."
Apple LCD Display Power Light is Blinking - what does it mean?
Error codes were in HT2811 "Apple LCD display Power light flashes", but Apple removed HT2811 article.
LED Cinema Display Audio Tips/Troubleshooting
- LED Cinema Display (27-inch): Intermittent loss of audio (archived May 2016)
- LED Cinema Display (27-inch and 24-inch Late 2008): About headphone sound redirection (archived Apr. 2014)
Info on Apple AC/Power Adapters for older DVI Cinema Displays
- Identifying power adapters for DVI Apple Cinema Displays (20-inch, 23-inch and 30-inch) (archived July 2017)
Mac Mini specific tips on HDMI/Audio/TV (see above for main Audio topics)
- How to Connect multiple displays to your Mac mini (2018) (now goes to 2018 Mini Tech Specs)
- Connecting headphones or external speakers to your Mac mini (archived May 2018)
- Mac mini: About HDMI audio & headphones (now converts to Connect to HDMI from your Mac)
- Mac mini (Late 2012): Audio MIDI Setup shows 96(K)Hz output instead of 192(K)Hz (archived Jan. 2017)
"The audio controller hardware in Mac mini (Late 2012) supports up to 96KHz audio input and output",
correcting a mistake in the original specs that listed 192KHz max.
(As of Jan 17, 2017 revision, the article title and text still has "Hz", which should be "KHz".)
- Connecting an iOS Device to a TV see below for A/V Adapter Cables for iPad, iPhone and iPod Touch.
Mac Ports and Connectors
- Identify the ports on your Mac
- About Thunderbolt ports and displays now goes to Adapters for the Thunderbolt 3 or USB-C port on your Mac or iPad Pro
- Frequently asked questions about using HDMI with Mac Computers is now "Connect to HDMI from your Mac"
- About USB on Mac computers
- About the external features and ports on your iMac and iMac Pro
(was titled "iMac (Late 2012 and later): External features, ports and connectors" - link now goes to Identify your iMac model)
- Mac Pro (Late 2013): External features, ports, and connectors (archived Jan. 2017)
- Mac mini (Late 2012): External ports and connectors - now routes to Mac mini (Late 2012) - Technical Specs
(HT202638 2012 Mac Mini Ports/Connectors article incorrectly listed 192KHz support for Audio. 2012 Mini max is 96KHz)
- Mac mini (Early 2006) and (Mid 2007): External ports and connectors (archived Jan. 2017)
- Mac mini (Power PC): external ports and connectors (HT3019 no longer online)
- About the Apple Thunderbolt 3 (USB-C) to Thunderbolt 2 Adapter
- Tip/Workaround If You Can't Boot from External Drives with macOS 10.12.2 or later
MacOS now disables loading an external drive's Option ROM firmware.
Linked page has a workaround and a Terminal command for Early 2015 and older Macs
to restore function without needing special key presses at every boot.
(Apple removed the Terminal tip from their article, so not sure it will still work.)
- About the SD and SDXC card slot on your Mac
- Mac Pro (Early 2008 to Mid 2012): About the PCI Express slots
(was archived, but now no longer online. I kept a PDF copy.)
USB and Firewire Info
(Original "USB and FireWire Quick Assist" article HT1151 is no longer online)
- FireWire Ports: Specifications (archived)
- About USB on Mac computers
- with USB-C, USB 4, USB 3.1 Gen 1/Gen2 info, USB power specs, and performance tips.
- Adapters for the Thunderbolt 3 or USB-C port on your Mac or iPad Pro
- Charge and connect with the USB-C port on iPad Pro
- If your USB-C power adapter isn't charging your Mac notebook
- About Apple USB power adapters
- OS X: Identifying USB ports on your Mac using System Info (archived Apr. 2016)
- OS X: Low power alert with USB Devices, USB Keyboard, and USB SuperDrive
- above HT203845 article now goes to If a Mac accessory needs more power or is using too much power
(was originally titled "Apple Computers and Displays: Powering peripherals through USB".)
About Macs using Target Disk Mode
- How to use target disk mode to move files to another computer
(now goes to Transfer files between two Mac computers using target disk mode)
- Mac computers in USB Target Disk Mode via USB-C appear as "unknown" in Windows (archived Sept. 2020)
- How to use and troubleshoot FireWire target disk mode (HT1661 no longer online, I kept a PDF copy.)
Apple Video Cables and Adapters (DVI, MDP, Thunderbolt, VGA)
- About the Apple USB-C Digital AV Multiport Adapter
- About Apple video adapters and cables (and list of compatible Macs)
- Apple Thunderbolt cables and adapters (and list of compatible Macs)
- Apple Thunderbolt Adapters: Frequently asked questions (FAQ) (archived March 2018)
- Adapters for the Thunderbolt 3 or USB-C port on your Mac or iPad Pro
(was titled "Adapters for connecting a display to the Thunderbolt 3 (USB-C) port on your Mac")
- About the Apple Mini DisplayPort adapters
(was titled "Apple Mini DisplayPort adapters: Frequently asked questions (FAQ)".)
- Mini DisplayPort to Dual-Link DVI Adapter: Flickering and wake from sleep problems (archived June 2016)
(Above issue was fixed in Adapter Firmware version 1.03.)
- About the Mini DisplayPort to VGA adapter firmware update (now archived)
(The above firmware update released in 2009.)
- About Mini DisplayPort to HDMI adapters is now titled
"Send audio and video to HDMI displays through Mini DisplayPort"
Includes list of Mac models that can output multichannel audio over Mini DisplayPort as well as video.
Also notes "If your Mac came with an HDMI port, the HDMI port supplies audio and video without an adapter".
(As of August 2017, article is 'archived, no longer updated'.)
- HT203758 was an Apple article on what to do if Thunderbolt Firmware Update 1.2 keeps reappearing in software update or Thunderbolt ports and Target Display Mode don't work after updating. Included notes this may be caused by having a self-powered Thunderbolt device connected when the update is applied. (The HT203758 Article was archived, but now no longer online.)
Apple Video Adapters for iPad, iPhone and iPod Touch
- This article on USB-C and Thunderbolt adapters updated to add iPad Pro info.
- About Apple Digital AV Adapters for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
- About the Apple USB-C Digital AV Multiport Adapter (for Macs and iPad Pro)
- Includes info on Model A2119 and Model A1621, Supported Resolutions and Supported Macs, and iPad Pro.
- Lightning to 30-pin Adapter: Using video adapters or other 30-pin accessories (HT202606 was archived, but now removed)
- iPhone, iPad, iPod: TV out support article (HT1454/HT204231) with info on older docks & AV cable kits is no longer online.
- How to Identify counterfeit or uncertified Lightning connector accessories
About iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch connections via USB in iOS 11.4.1 and later
- Using USB accessories with iOS 11.4.1 and later notes
"Starting with iOS 11.4.1, You might need to unlock your passcode-protected iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch to connect it to a Mac, PC, or a USB accessory..." (See linked article for more details.)
Apple Magsafe Adapters Info/Care/Troubleshooting
- Apple Portables: Troubleshooting MagSafe adapters
- Reduce cable strain on your MagSafe power adapter
- Using and maintaining your Apple MagSafe Adapter (archived Sept. 2020)
- Mac notebooks: Troubleshooting power adapters with a barrel-type connector (archived Jan. 2016)
- Find the right power adapter and cable for your Mac notebook (USB-C, MagSafe & MagSafe 2)
- PowerPC-Based Mac notebooks: Identifying the right power adapter and power cord--US (archived Sept. 2020)
- Using Apple power adapters, cables, and duckheads with Apple products
(Apple's Power Adapter Replacement Program (U.S. only) ended January 31, 2014)
Apple RAID Cards for Mac Pro and Xserves
- Mac Pro (Early 2009) RAID Card: Identification and compatibility (archived Dec. 2016)
- Original & Early 2009 versions.
- Mac Pro RAID Card and Xserve RAID Card (Early 2009): Enabling system sleep (archived Dec. 2016)
- Mac Pro RAID Card or Xserve RAID Card: Volume may not mount after improper shutdown or restart (archived July 2016)
- Mac Pro (Mid 2012 and earlier): Frequently Asked Questions about the Mac Pro RAID Card & Xserve RAID Card (archived June 2017)
- Apple RAID Utility User's Guide (PDF) (direct download link)
("Instructions for setting up RAID volumes on a computer with a MacPro RAID Card or Xserve RAID Card.")
- Mac Pro RAID Card: Capacity for four-drive RAID 5 configurations may be different than expected (TA24883 no longer online)
- Xserve RAID Card: Identification and compatibility (HT3515 no longer online, I kept a PDF copy)
Mac Fusion Drives (Info and Repairs)
- About Fusion Drive, a storage option for some Mac computers (archived Dec. 2020)
- How to fix a split Fusion Drive
"If your Fusion Drive appears as two drives instead of one in the Finder,
it's no longer working as a Fusion Drive. Here's how to fix it..."
Apple Hardware Test and Apple Diagnostics (see above for Wi-Fi diagnostics)
- How to use Apple Diagnostics to test your Mac (for June 2013 and later Macs)
- now includes instructions for both Intel-based Macs and Apple Silicon Macs.
- How to use Apple Hardware Test on your Mac for pre-2013 Intel-based Macs. (archived April 2020)
- Apple Diagnostics: Reference (error) codes
(Info on Startup tones, POST RAM error codes are in Mac Startup Problems section.)
- Mac notebooks: Apple Hardware Test may report SNS alert when power adapter is not connected (archived Dec. 2016)
(Errors "4 SNS/1/40000001: IDOR" and/or "4 SNS/1/40000001: VPOR")
Troubleshooting Mac Startup or Power Up Problems (below are macOS/OS X Troubleshooting Tips)
- What to do if your Mac doesn't turn on
(was titled "if your Mac doesn't turn on or start up")
- How to use safe mode on your Mac (updated for Apple M1 chip Macs)
- Booting in Safe mode is a common troubleshooting tip.
- Safe Mode doesn't use non-essential drivers/addons, deletes caches, etc.
- Safe Mode is also useful for installing OS Updates.
- If your Mac beeps during startup (was titled "About Mac startup tones" - what the tones indicate)
- Certain conditions related to memory or firmware might cause your Mac to beep once or more during startup.
(HT201702 article "About Mac Power On Self Test (POST) RAM error codes" no longer online.)
(Older HT1547 article on "Power On Self-Test Beep Definition - Part 2" no longer online.)
- How to Turn the Mac startup sound on or off
"Depending on which Mac and macOS you're using, you might hear a startup sound
shortly after pressing the power button to turn on your Mac.
With macOS Big Sur 11 or later, you can control whether your Mac plays this sound at startup.
Choose Apple menu > System Preferences, then click Sound. In the Sound Effects pane,
use the "Play sound on startup" setting to turn the startup sound on or off."
- Mac Startup Key Combinations (for Intel-based Macs)
(Doc on using startup keys with Apple Wireless Keyboards no longer online)
- About the screens on your Mac as it starts up (now titled "If your Mac doesn't start up all the way".)
- If your Mac starts up to a circle with a line through it
- If your Mac starts up to a question mark
- If your Mac starts up to Options with a gear icon
- Startup options screen for M1 Macs when Power Button held down for at least 10 seconds.
(Used for Diagnostics, Disk Repair, Safe Mode boot, macOS Recovery/reinstall.)
- If your Mac starts up to a blank screen
- If your Mac starts up to an Apple logo or progress bar
- If your Mac starts up to a Globe with alert symbol
- If your Mac starts up to error -1008F
(Error -1008F means the Mac tried to boot from macOS Recovery over the Internet, but failed.)
- Graphics performance limited in macOS Recovery, safe mode, or Guest User mode (archived Sept. 2020)
- If your Mac doesn't start up from the Mac OS X Install DVD disc (older OS article, archived Jan. 2016)
- How to Start Up your Mac in Single User or Verbose Mode (HT201573 no longer online)
- Resolve startup issues and perform disk maintenance with Disk Utility and fsck
(Above HT203176 article no longer online, but I kept a PDF copy.)
How to Reset a Mac's NVRAM & Reset the SMC (System Management Controller)
- How to Reset NVRAM or PRAM on your Mac (for Intel-based Macs)
- Hold the keys down until Mac startup tone is heard 3 times.
(The original HT1379 article had info on what's stored in it, when and why you should reset it.)
- How to Reset the System Management Controller (SMC) of your Mac (Intel-based Macs)
(Includes what to try before resetting SMC, and what problems may be fixed by resetting the SMC.)
TIP: What the current SMC reset article does not mention for Desktop Macs, is holding the power button down for 5 seconds after disconnecting A/C Power cord. (This fixed a Firewire 800 port problem on my old iMac. Just disconnecting A/C power for a period of time -did not- fix that problem. Holding the power button down for 5 seconds with power cord disconnected did restore FW800 port function.)
How to Reset the SMU on Power Mac G5 (Late 2004 or Late 2005)
- How to reset the SMU on a Power Mac G5 (Late 2004) or Power Mac G5 (Late 2005)
(Article HT1436 was archived, now no longer online.)
How to Reset the PMU (power management unit) on PowerPC Notebooks
- Resetting PowerBook and iBook Power Management Unit (PMU)
(Article HT1431 was archived, now no longer online.)
- PowerBook 100 through PowerBook 5300: Resetting Power Management Unit (PMU)
(Article HT1781 was archived, now no longer online.)
Troubleshooting Unexpected Restarts/Reboots
- If your Mac restarted because of a problem
"What to do if your computer restarts or shuts down unexpectedly, or you get a message that your computer restarted or shut down because of a problem."
- Apple's HT203161 Isolating issues in Mac OS X, HT204443 How to test an issue in another user account on your Mac,
and HT201516 How to troubleshoot an OS X software issue are no longer online.
macOS/OS X Permissions Issues
- Troubleshooting permissions issues in Mac OS X
(HT2963 was archived, now no longer online. I saved a PDF copy when it was archived.)
- Resolve issues caused by changing the permissions of items in your home folder
(Apple article HT203538 no longer online.)
- Repair disk permissions with Disk Utility (Yosemite and earlier)
- In OS X Yosemite and earlier, Disk Utility can repair file permissions on a startup disk.
(HT201560 was archived, now no longer online. I saved a PDF copy when it was archived.)
- Disk Utility's Repair Disk Permissions messages that you can safely ignore
(HT203172 no longer online.)
Reset macOS Login or User Account Password
- If you forgot your Mac login password (macOS Catalina or later)
- was titled "change or reset the password of a macOS user account".
- Change or reset the password of a macOS user account in macOS Mojave or earlier
- If you can't reset your Mac login password
Change macOS User Account Name and Home Folder
- How to change the name of your macOS user account and home folder
About macOS Recovery Mode and Reinstalling macOS
- How to use macOS Recovery on a Mac with Apple silicon
- About macOS Recovery on Intel-based Mac computers
"The utilities in macOS Recovery help you restore from Time Machine, reinstall macOS,
get help online, repair or erase a hard disk, and more."
- If you try macOS Recovery over the Internet, and Mac shows error -1008F.
Means your Mac tried to start up from macOS Recovery over the Internet, but couldn't.
(Article includes reasons for the error and suggestions to try.)
- How to reinstall macOS
- Has separate instructions for Apple silicon Macs and Intel CPU Macs.
- If you can't install macOS Big Sur on certain 13-inch MacBook Pros from 2013 & 2014 (archived Feb. 26, 2021)
"Follow these steps if you can't install macOS Big Sur on a MacBook Pro (Retina, 13-inch, Late 2013) or MacBook Pro (Retina, 13-inch, Mid 2014).
The article includes steps to try and solve the problem.
When you install macOS Big Sur on these Mac models, the installer might say that the update cannot be installed on this computer, or your Mac might start up to a blank screen or circle with a line through it..."
- If you get a personalization error when reinstalling macOS on your Mac with Apple M1 chip
- OS X: About Recovery Disk Assistant (HT202294 article no longer online)
- OS X Recovery Disk Assistant v1.0 for OS X Lion or Mountain Lion (download page still there as of Jan 2021)
"The OS X Recovery Disk Assistant lets you create OS X Recovery on an external drive that has all of the same capabilities as the built-in OS X Recovery: reinstall Lion or Mountain Lion, repair the disk using Disk Utility, restore from a Time Machine backup, or browse the web with Safari.
(As noted above, the "About OS X Recovery Disk Assistant" article is no longer online.)
Note: In order to create an external OS X Recovery using the OS X Recovery Assistant, the Mac must have an existing Recovery HD."
How to Upgrade to a later version of macOS
- How to upgrade to macOS Big Sur
- Down the page includes info on upgrading to earlier macOS Versions.
- Also before upgrading, check the article on 32-bit Apps.
(See below for info on making a bootable installer, reinstalls/recovery, etc.)
Info on macOS 11 Big Sur Updates
- What's new in macOS Big Sur (info on Bug Sur updates)
- What's new for enterprise in macOS Big Sur
- If you can't install macOS Big Sur on certain 13-inch MacBook Pros from 2013 & 2014 (archived Feb. 2021)
- Enterprise management of legacy system extensions in macOS Big Sur
- Installing macOS on a separate APFS volume
macOS System Extensions/Drivers
- About system extensions and macOS (was titled "About legacy system extensions")
"Some system extensions aren't compatible with current versions of macOS or won't be compatible with a future version of macOS. Learn what to do if you see an alert about system extensions or kernel extensions..."
(In 2019, Apple told developers that macOS Catalina is the last macOS to fully support legacy system extensions.)
Download previous macOS version Installers
- How to get old versions of macOS
- Article covers macOS Catalina 10.15 to OS X Yosemite 10.10, with hardware requirements.
- This replaces previous separate articles on how to upgrade to older OS versions.
Download OS X 10.7 Lion & OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion Installers
(These are earlier OS X versions than in Apple's How to get old versions of macOS.)
On June 23, 2021 Apple posted OS X 10.7 Lion Installer (4.72 GB) and OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion Installer (4.45 GB).
Both are "available for older systems that are not compatible with the latest version of macOS".
Each download page has software (previous OS) and hardware requirements listed.
(Often original old Apple installers/updaters have expired certificates. An old tip was to set the system date back to allow them to be installed.)
- Downloads of macOS Delta and Combo Updaters & macOS Security Updates are at tips.html#OS.
(Covers current OS version updates plus older OS X updates all the way back to OS X 10.6.8.)
- How to Install macOS 10.14 Mojave on Mac Pro (Mid 2010) & Mac Pro (Mid 2012) (archived Dec. 2019)
Includes notes on supported Graphics cards. Some owner feedback for our Radeon RX 580 in Mac Pros page.
(Some 2009 Mac Pro owners have flashed their EFI/bootrom to Mac Pro 5,1 (2010-2012) for later macOS support.)
- macOS 10.14 Mojave - If you see the alert 'Installation cannot proceed with Boot Camp configured' (archived July 2020)
- "This alert may appear when installing macOS Mojave or later on certain iMac models that have a 3TB hard drive. Learn what you can do."
APFS Conversion When you Upgrade to macOS High Sierra or Later
- How to Prepare for APFS in macOS High Sierra (archived Jan. 2020)
"When you install macOS High Sierra on the built-in solid-state drive (SSD) of a Mac,
Includes info on APFS compatibility with Mac OS Extended (HFS+), FileVault, Boot Camp, file sharing, and Time Machine.
that drive is automatically converted to APFS.
Fusion Drives and hard disk drives (HDDs) aren't converted.
You can't opt out of the transition to APFS."
(Also check Apple's MacOS High Sierra user discussion forum, and
sponsor OWC's blog post on Common Problems During and After macOS High Sierra Installation.)
- How to choose between APFS and Mac OS Extended when formatting a disk for Mac
now goes to How to erase a disk for Intel-based Mac
- How to Prepare for changes to kernel extensions in macOS High Sierra (archived Oct. 2019)
How to Reinstall macOS and Creating a Bootable macOS Installer
- How to reinstall macOS from macOS Recovery
- How to Create a Bootable installer for macOS
- Covers macOS Big Sur, Catalina, Mojave, High Sierra, and El Capitan.
Rosetta 2 allows using Apps for Intel CPU Macs on Apple Silicon Macs
- If you need to install Rosetta on your Mac
"Rosetta 2 enables a Mac with Apple silicon to use apps built for a Mac with an Intel processor.
In the example above, a reason Safari would need the option checked is if it's using a non-universal extension.
Click Install, then enter your user name and password to allow installation to proceed. Rosetta will then be available for any of your apps that need it.
Rosetta 2 works in the background whenever you use an app built only for Mac computers with an Intel processor. It automatically translates the app for use with Apple silicon.
In most cases, you won't notice any difference in the performance of an app that needs Rosetta. But you should contact the app developer to inquire about a version that can natively use the full power and performance of Apple silicon.
You can use Get Info to identify apps that need Rosetta or can use Rosetta:
The Info window for universal apps includes the setting "Open using Rosetta." It enables email apps, web browsers, and other apps to use add-ons that haven't been updated to support Apple silicon. If an app doesn't recognize a plug-in, extension, or other add-on, quit the app, select this setting, and try again."
- Select the app in the Finder.
- From the File menu in the menu bar, choose Get Info.
- View the information labeled Kind:
- Application (Intel) means the app supports only Intel processors and needs Rosetta to work on any Mac with Apple silicon.
- Application (Universal) means the app supports both Apple silicon and Intel processors, and uses Apple silicon by default.
M1 Printer Problem Tip
If you have printing problems with an M1 Mac, check for printer software updates.
If printer updates are no help, try resetting the printing system.
If the printer software is not M1 compatible, try setting it to run using Rosetta.
If you're having printing problems with an M1 Mac, try this even if the Application is listed as "Universal".
- In the Finder, select the "Go" Menu.
- Hold down Option key to make Library folder appear.
- Go to Library/Printers and find your Printer's application.
- "Get Info" on the printer application.
- Check the "Open using Rosetta" option.
- How to create a NetBoot, NetInstall, or NetRestore image (Archived Apr. 2019)
- How to install macOS at your organization (for system administrators)
- How to select a different startup disk
(No longer goes to HT202796. Tip below is from an earlier article revision.)
Previously included a tip if you can't boot from an external drive (originally reported after installing macOS 10.12.2 update). See the section down the page titled "If you can't select your startup disk or start up from it" that has a note on third-party external devices that use Option ROM firmware which isn't loaded by default now. It requires keystrokes at each boot.
"If you're in Startup Manager and can't see a third-party startup disk, the startup disk could be using Option ROM firmware. To enhance system security, Mac computers with up-to-date software don't show devices that use Option ROM firmware until you load their firmware. To do that, press Option-Shift-Command-Period while in Startup Manager. If your startup disk appears, do that each time you want to start up from it or from another disk connected to it.
(They removed the original tip on Terminal Commands for Early 2015 and Older Macs, but a copy of it is here.)
(If you're using a firmware password, the ability to load Option ROM firmware is disabled as an additional security protection.)"
- Use the Mac operating system that came with your Mac, or a compatible newer version (archived Nov. 2020)
(Original Apple HT204319 with list of OS X versions/builds that shipped with Macs, now routes to above.)
- Mac OS: Versions, builds included with PowerPC Macs (since 1998)
(HT2191 was archived, now no longer online. I saved a PDF copy when it was archived.)
- Mac OS X: About the Archive and Install feature
(HT1710 was archived, now no longer online. I saved a PDF copy when it was archived.)
- Intel-based Macs: "You inserted a disk containing no volumes that Mac OS X can read" alert message
- Intel-based Mac's volumes don't appear on Mac OS X 10.3.9 or earlier.
(HT2528 was archived, now no longer online. I saved a PDF copy when it was archived.)
Mac OS X Install Problems and Error Messages
- "You cannot install Mac OS X on this volume..." alert in Installer
(now goes to How to select a different startup disk)
- Installer reports "OS X could not be installed on your computer" or "This disk cannot be used to start up your computer"
(now goes to How to reinstall macOS using macOS Recovery)
- Troubleshooting Mac OS X installation from CD or DVD (HT201817 article no loner online)
Reinstalling OS X Server 3.x/2.x for OS X 10.9.x / 10.8.x
- How to reinstall OS X Server for Mountain Lion or Mavericks from the Mac App Store (archived July 2016)
- How to Turn on performance mode for OS X Server
- Changes introduced in macOS Server 5.7.1
- Apple published a PDF article to help with this transition.
DIY Guides on How To Repair and Upgrade 2019 Mac Pro
- How to Install and replace parts in your Mac Pro (2019)
- How to Install or replace SSD modules in your Mac Pro (2019)
- Referring to the SSD Upgrade Kit modules (1TB, 2TB, 4TB, 8TB).
- Kit has 2 Modules. Mac Pro mating connectors are marked "1" and "2".
(See this photo of the 2019 Mac Pro SSD Connectors marked 1 & 2.)
- PCIe cards you can install in your Mac Pro (2019)
- How to Install PCIe cards in your Mac Pro (2019)
- Includes info on using the Expansion Slot Utility.
- How to Install and replace memory in your Mac Pro (2019)
- Mac Pro (2019) memory specifications
- How to Replace the Apple I/O card in your Mac Pro (2019)
- How to Replace the power supply in your Mac Pro (2019)
- How to remove or install feet or wheels on Mac Pro (2019)
2019 Mac Pro Status Light Indicators
- Mac Pro (2019) status indicator light behavior
- Info on Memory Error, PCIe card error, Firmware recovery mode, & more.
2019 Mac Pro Video Card Options
- How to Use the Radeon Pro 580X MPX Module with your Mac Pro
- How to Use the Radeon Pro W5500X MPX Module with your Mac Pro
- How to Use the Radeon Pro W5700X MPX Module with your Mac Pro
- How to Use the Radeon Pro Vega II MPX Module with your Mac Pro
- How to Use the Radeon Pro Vega II Duo MPX Module with your Mac Pro
- Using AMD graphics cards with Microsoft Windows on Mac Pro (2019)
2019 Mac Pro Afterburner Card
- About the Afterburner accelerator card for Mac Pro (2019)
2019 Mac Pro RAID Module
- About the Promise Pegasus R4i MPX RAID storage module for Mac Pro (2019)
Using Displays with a 2019 Mac Pro, including Apple Pro Display XDR
- How to use multiple displays with your 2019 Mac Pro
- How to set up and use Apple Pro Display XDR
(Includes Compatible Macs list and how to attach the Pro Stand or VESA Mount Adapter)
- How to use reference modes with Apple Pro Display XDR
- How to change the refresh rate on Apple Pro Display XDR
- How to use Pro Display XDR with Boot Camp
- What's new in firmware updates for Apple Pro Display XDR
- Tip for Missing XDR Display Presets after a Firmware Update
- How to clean the nano-texture glass on your Apple display
(was originally titled "How to clean your Apple Pro Display XDR")
Mac Guides to Upgrading/Replacing RAM (some models are not upgradeable)
- Upgrade or install memory in your Mac mini
- MacBook Pro: How to remove or install memory
- How to Install memory in an iMac
- Install and replace memory in your Mac Pro (2019)
- Mac Pro (Late 2013): Installing or replacing memory
- Mac Pro (Mid 2012 and earlier): How to remove or install memory (archived Sept. 2020)
- Mac Pro (Mid 2010): Registered DIMM support (HT4584 no longer online)
- MacBook (2006-2010): How to remove or install memory (HT1651 no longer online)
Apple Notebook Battery Tips and Info
- Apple's Tips for Maximizing Battery Life and Lifespan
- How to Determine battery cycle count for Mac notebooks
- About battery health management in (Intel-based) Mac notebooks (with macOS 10.15.5 and later)
"macOS 10.15.5 introduced battery health management, designed to improve the lifespan of a Mac notebook's battery."
- Above article applies only to Mac computers with an Intel processor.
- Includes info on "How to control the battery health management feature" setting.
- About battery health management in (Apple Silicon) Mac notebooks
- Above article applies only to Mac computers with Apple silicon.
(Does not include the "How to control the battery health management feature" note.)
- If battery charging is paused or on hold on your Mac
- If the battery in your 2016 or 2017 MacBook Pro won't charge past 1%
"A very small number of customers with 2016 and 2017 MacBook Pro computers have experienced an issue with the battery not charging past 1%.
- Those software updates are linked on our page of macOS Updates.
The battery health status on these devices will also indicate "Service Recommended." If the status indicates that your battery is Normal, your battery is not affected by this issue.
If your 2016 or 2017 MacBook Pro exhibits these behaviors, contact Apple to get your battery replaced, free of charge. Your computer will be examined prior to service to verify that it is eligible for the free battery replacement.
Apple has also released a macOS update that prevents this issue from happening to other 2016 and 2017 MacBook Pro computers. Please update to macOS Big Sur 11.2.1 or later or install the macOS Catalina 10.15.7 supplemental update."
- Get help with your Mac notebook battery has info on Optimizing battery life, Troubleshooting & Servicing Apple batteries.
- Includes notes on "Optimize battery" option, which can limit charging to appx 80%.
(See note for more info on this feature, designed to reduce battery aging.)
- Servicing the battery in your Mac notebook
- includes Costs for Out of Warranty Battery service by Mac model.
- If your USB-C power adapter isn't charging your Mac notebook
- How to store Apple notebook computers and their batteries (now archived)
(was titled "Mac notebooks: About Battery Storage Life")
- Calibrating your Mac notebook's battery for best performance (now goes to "Maximizing Battery Life and Lifespan" above)
- MacBook Air (Original, Late 2008, and Mid 2009): Using the sleep indicator light (SIL) to diagnose battery issues (archived)
Info on iPhone/iPad/iPod Touch Batteries & Charging
- About iPhone Battery and Performance
- About the battery and performance of iPhone 11 and later
- If you see "Your iPhone battery may need to be serviced"
- About the battery usage on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
- How to Use Low Power Mode to save battery life on your iPhone
- Show the battery percentage on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- If your iPhone or iPod touch won't charge
- If your iPad won't charge
- About Apple USB power adapters
- About the Apple World Travel Adapter Kit
- How to Charge your iPhone with an iPad or Mac notebook power adapter
- How to Fast charge your iPhone
- How to wirelessly charge your iPhone
- How to use your MagSafe Charger with iPhone 12 models
- How to use your MagSafe Duo Charger with iPhone 12 models and Apple Watch
- Wirelessly charging your iPhone 8 or later with a built-in car charger (archived June 2020)
About Magnets in Apple iPhone 12 phones and MagSafe accessories
- About the magnets inside iPhone 12, iPhone 12 mini, iPhone 12 Pro, iPhone 12 Pro Max, and MagSafe accessories
Apple Battery Replacement & Recycling
About Apple Battery Replacement and Recycling
(includes info on iPhone, iPad and iPod batteries as well as Mac Notebooks)
About Cooling Fans in Macs and Temperatures
About fans and fan noise in your Apple product
(includes notes that Spotlight indexing your drive can increase fan speeds for cooling.)
Keep your Mac notebook within acceptable operating temperatures
See how apps affect Mac performance, battery runtime, temperature, and fan activity
(was titled "Runaway apps affect ...")
How to Identify your Specific Mac Model (Series/Year)
Find the model and serial number of your Mac
Mac computers with Apple silicon (new Apple M1 Chip Macs)
How to identify Mac Pro models (no longer lists 2008 and older)
How to identify iMac models (no longer lists 2008 and older)
How to identify Mac mini models (no longer lists 2008 and older)
How to identify MacBook models (no longer lists 2008 and older)
How to identify MacBook Pro models (no longer lists 2008 and older)
How to identify MacBook Air models (no longer lists 2008 and older)
Info/Specs on PowerPC Mac Models (most articles now archived)
PowerMac G5 (Late 2005) (Dual Core CPUs, PCI-Express slots)
PowerMac G5 (Early 2005) (Last of the AGP and PCI-X slot models)
PowerMac G5 (Late 2004) (AGP Slot for Graphics Card + PCI-X slots)
PowerMac G5 (June 2004) (AGP Slot for Graphics Card + PCI-X slots)
PowerMac G5 (2003, first G5 towers) (AGP Slot for Graphics card + PCI-X slots. All Air cooled)
Power Mac G4: How to Differentiate Between Models (HT3082 no longer online)
PowerBook G3 Computers: How to Identify Different Models (HT2287 no longer online)
How to Identify iPad, iPod, iPhone Models
Identify your iPhone model
Identify your iPad model
Identify your iPod model
Find the model number of your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
SIM and eSIM info - iPhone, iPad and Watch
Learn which size SIM card your iPhone or iPad uses
How to Remove or switch the SIM card in your iPhone or iPad
Set up cellular data service on your Wi-Fi + Cellular model iPad
Import contacts from your SIM card to your iPhone
Find wireless carriers that offer eSIM service
Using Dual SIM with an eSIM
If Dual SIM with an eSIM isn't working on your iPhone
If Dual SIM with two nano-SIM cards isn't working on your iPhone
Using Dual SIM with two nano-SIM cards
Use Dual SIM with Apple Watch GPS + Cellular models
About Ultra Wideband availability
About Cellular Data Usage on iPhone or iPad
Check the cellular data usage on your iPhone and iPad
How to Use Low Data Mode on your iPhone and iPad
"With iOS 13 and later, you can turn on Low Data Mode to restrict background network use
No Service or Cellular Update Failed
If you see No Service or Searching on your iPhone or iPad
If you see a Cellular Update Failed or Apple Pay Not Available alert after iOS update or restart
and save cellular and Wi-Fi usage.
You might want to use Low Data Mode if your cellular or internet plan limits your data usage,
or if you're in an area with slow data speeds..."
Tips if your iPhone/iPad/iPod is Frozen or Won't Power On
If your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch won't turn on or is frozen
If your iPod won't turn on or seems frozen
How to Restart your iPhone (previous title included iPad & iPad Touch)
Keeping iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch within acceptable operating temperatures
Tips for Displays on iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch
About genuine iPhone displays
If the screen isn't working on your iPhone or iPad
Adjust the brightness and color temperature on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
About the Liquid Retina XDR display on iPad Pro
About the Super Retina display and Super Retina XDR display on your iPhone
- Notes on HDR, OLED Displays, Burn-In, Brightness, and more.
Apple TV Setup, Tips, and Manuals
Apple TV Manuals
Identifying Apple TV models (includes ports/connectors info)
How to set up your Apple TV
How to adjust video and audio settings on Apple TV
How to set up Wireless Audio Sync with Apple TV
- Learn how to synchronize your wireless audio devices to your TV's audio.
(HT210526 now goes to Calibrate audio between your wired and wireless speakers.)
How to use tvOS Control Center on Apple TV
How to Set up multiple users on Apple TV
How to turn off or restart your Apple TV (there's no power button)
How to Use Picture in Picture on your Apple TV
Updating Apple TV Software
How to Update the software on your Apple TV
About Apple TV 4K and Apple TV HD software updates (tvOS 11 and later)
About Apple TV (4th generation) software updates (tvOS 10 and older, now archived)
About Apple TV (2nd and 3rd generation) software updates
How to get updated time zone information for your Apple device
Apple TV App/Apple TV+ Compatible Devices
How to Get Apple TV+
Get the Apple TV app on your smart TV, streaming device, or game console
All the ways to watch Apple TV+ and more
- Info on compatible devices including Macs/PCs, iPhone/iPads, Smart TVs, or watch online.
- Also third party devices, players, & TVs compatibility info at www.apple.com/apple-tv-app/devices/.
Availability of supported apps in the Apple TV app
Watch movies, TV shows, and live content in the Apple TV app
FYI: See this section for article on 4K/HDR/Dolby Vision movies (no downloading of 4K movies).
and this article about 4K, HDR, and Dolby Vision on Apple TV 4K.
How to Use single sign-on with your iOS device or Apple TV
TV providers that support single sign-on with your iOS device or Apple TV
Dolby Atmos with Apple TV
How to Play audio in Dolby Atmos or surround sound on your Apple TV
(tvOS 12 added Atmos support. Article was titled "Surround sound settings on your Apple TV 4K or 4th generation".)
Dolby's Info about Apple TV Audio Settings (from tvOS 10 era)
Dolby Audio Support on Apple TV (4th Generation and later)
- Includes tips/explanation of 4th Generation and later Apple TV Audio Surround Sound Settings.
(Apple added Dolby Atmos support with tvOS 12 - see Apple article above.)
How to Turn on audio descriptions on your Apple TV or smart TV
About 4K, HDR, and Dolby Vision on your Apple TV 4K
(Also see footnote about HDR10 and Dolby Vision frame rates. Some TVs (like 2016 LG OLEDs) don't support 4K/UHD Dolby Vision at 60Hz/50Hz, so 30Hz or 24Hz would be used (or 25Hz for PAL TVs). In those cases Apple recommends 1080P at 60Hz/50Hz instead due to slower interface performance at 25/30Hz.
Update - Although Apple favors framerate over all else and considers mode switching (24Hz for movies, 60Hz or Interface) a negative due to TV re-sync causing a screen flicker, under "Other Formats" there are 4K options for 24Hz HDR, 24Hz SDR and 24Hz Dolby Vision (if connected to a Dolby Vision compatible TV).
Update 2: In tvOS 11.2, Apple TV 4K gets Native Mode/Frame rate matching option that many owners wanted. (See new Apple article - Automatic 4K Apple TV Video output switching of HDR/SDR and refresh rate to match the original video's content. tvOS 11.2 added a "Match Content" option in the Video Settings. Resolution doesn't change, but the option for HDR/SDR & frame rate matching with the original source is a big plus that many wanted. I think this will both increase sales and reduce returns.)
Update 3: tvOS 11.3 added Apple TV 4K support for the "low latency" Dolby Vision profile used by some Sony 4K/UHD TVs. (It's the first HDMI device to support the Dolby Vision profile used by Sony, which is different than the Dolby Vision profile used in other TV brands like LG, TCL and Vizio.)
Update 4: tvOS 12 added support for Dolby Atmos - see this article.
The above Apple doc recommends cables with a "Dolby Vision mark" - tested with 4K Apple TV they say. (Their example 2M Belkin Ultra High Speed cable is $29.95 at Apple's store and its specs list "up to 48 Gbps" - that's next-gen HDMI 2.1 spec's max rate and more than double the Apple TV 4K's listed HDMI 2.0a port spec.)
For HDMI 2.0 4K/UHD HDR/DV use I'd suggest a Premium Certified HDMI cable (HDMI 2.0/18GHz), as short as possible. 6ft Certified Premium HDMI 2.0/18Gbps cables are available under $10. (There's also a free HDMI Premium Cable Authentication iOS App to verify the code on the box label.) I've seen them work reliably with a 4K HDR10 60P movie, although DV on 4K discs are typically 24P. (HDR10 is 10-bit and DV supports 12-bit, but both are within the HDMI 2.0x spec using correct output settings. The test Oppo 203 set to "HDR Auto" always output 12-bit 4:2:2 to the 4K LG OLED, even with HDR10 discs. And per HDMI 2.0 Supported 4K formats, 4K @60Hz 12-Bit 4:2:2 is supported. (4K60 12-Bit 4:2:2 is appx 17.8Gbps, just under the 18Gbps HDMI 2.0 spec max.) Blu-Ray and HDR10 discs are 4:2:0, DV discs IIRC are 4:2:2. 4K @60Hz/50Hz 4:4:4 isn't supported at 10-bit or 12-bit in the HDMI 2.0 spec - too high a data rate.)
About frame rate and dynamic range matching on Apple TV (in tvOS 11.2 and later)
HDR on Macs
How to Play HDR video on Mac
- Lists Mac models that support HDR video on HDR10-compatible displays and TVs.
If an HDR display is too bright or vivid on Mac
Apps, Games, Streaming and Podcasts
Download apps and games from the App Store
Accept preinstalled Pro Apps on your new Mac
Use Apple Podcasts on your Mac
Use Apple Podcasts on your iPhone or iPad
Get and manage your Apple Podcasts Subscriptions
Contact App developer or Content Providers
How to contact an app developer
Contact streaming video content providers for Apple TV
Apple TV Wireless Keyboards and Wi-Fi Help
If your Apple TV can't connect to Wi-Fi
(originally titled "Get help with Wi-Fi networks on your Apple TV")
How to Use Bluetooth keyboards with your Apple TV (now goes to doc below)
How to Use Bluetooth accessories with your Apple TV
Apple TV Remote Control Info and Tips (hardware remote)
How to use your Siri Remote or Apple TV Remote with your Apple TV
How to use Siri on your Apple TV
How to If you can't control your TV or receiver with your Apple TV Remote
- was titled "Control your TV or receiver with your Siri Remote or Apple TV Remote".
How to Charge your Siri Remote or Apple TV Remote
What to do if your Apple TV remote isn't working
How to replace the battery in your Apple Remote
How to use the orignal (alum) Apple remote for Apple TV (archived Sept. 2018)
Use a third-party remote with your Apple TV, a guide to learning/programming. (HT201856 article no longer online)
(Some universal remotes like the Harmony series also have Apple TV as a device option.)
About the Apple TV Remote App
If you lost the remote for your Apple TV
How to set up the Apple TV Remote on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
How to use the Apple TV Remote app - not goes to above article.
App store link for Apple TV Remote App
(if unavailable, try the iTunes Remote iOS App)
General Apple TV Info/Tips
How to Use Display Accommodations on your Apple TV
(Vision aids on Apple TV, like Color Filters, Reduce White Point, Invert Colors, and more. Requires tvOS 10 or later.)
How to Customize the Apple TV Home screen
How to Enter text on your Apple TV
How to change the language on your Apple TV
About Search on your Apple TV
How to use Restrictions on your Apple TV
How to put your Apple TV into sleep mode now goes to How to turn off or restart your Apple TV
Using AirPlay with Apple TV
Manage AirPlay settings on your Apple TV
(was titled "About AirPlay restrictions and Conference Room mode on your Apple TV")
- Learn how to control who can stream content to your Apple TV using AirPlay.
Tips for Apple TV Problems
Get help with third-party apps on your Apple TV now goes to
If an app unexpectedly quits, stops responding, or won't open.
If your Apple TV won't turn on (and other problems)
(originally titled "Get help with audio, video, or power on Apple TV")
Get help playing or streaming content on your Apple TV now goes to If you can't watch or stream movies and TV shows in the Apple TV app
If your Apple TV (2nd or 3rd generation) stops at the date and time screen during startup
Get help with Wi-Fi networks on your Apple TV
(now titled "If your Apple TV can't connect to Wi-Fi")
Use Apple Configurator to connect to an Apple TV with USB (archived Nov. 2017)
(originally titled "How to install a configuration profile on Apple TV")
Apple TV (2nd/3rd generation): About Apple TV and HDCP now goes to Get help with audio, video, or power on Apple TV.
- Later titled simply "If your Apple TV won't turn on". (A section on "HDCP" was in the article, but has been removed.)
Resetting or Restoring your Apple TV
How to Reset or restore your Apple TV to the factory settings
(for info on earlier tips for Apple TV restore problems & micro-USB cables - see here.)
If you see a warning symbol on Apple TV
was titled "Restore your Apple TV" (with Troubleshooting Tips)
Apple Arcade Home
Join Apple Arcade
Play games with Apple Arcade
Access your Apple Arcade gameplay data on all of your devices
Connect a wireless game controller to your Apple device
Pair an Xbox controller to your Apple devices
How to Accept a friend request for Game Center
Game Center & Privacy
Apple HomePod Setup and Guides
About Software Updates for HomePod
How to update HomePod
How to set up and use HomePod
How to identify status lights on HomePod
How to change settings for HomePod
If you can't set up HomePod
What to do if HomePod isn't responding
How to Reset HomePod
HomePod Service and Repair
- About HomePod service options, warranty, & pricing in the United States.
How to Set up home theater audio with HomePod and Apple TV 4K
How to create a HomePod stereo pair
How to add and manage TVs and speakers in the Home app
Cleaning and taking care of HomePod
HomePod - Technical Specifications
How to find the serial number for your HomePod
HomePod Service and Repair (US)
How to use Personal Requests on HomePod
How to use HomePod for phone calls
Using VoiceOver on HomePod
How to use Touch Accommodations on HomePod
How to use Siri to play music or podcasts
Do More with Siri (was "... on HomePod")
How "Hey Siri" works with multiple devices
Apple Homekit Related Help and Tips
Learn about HomeKit and Home App
Find accessories that work with Apple HomeKit
(list of devices by type/brand - Lights, Switches, Thermostats, Sensors, etc.)
How to Get notifications for your HomeKit accessories
How to Control your home with Siri
How to Share control of your home
Apple Home App Setup and Tips
How to Add a HomeKit accessory to the Home app
(originally titled "Set up and use the Home app".)
How to Create home automations with the Home app
How to set up your HomePod, HomePod mini, Apple TV, or iPad as a home hub
Info for Hardware and Software developers at developer.apple.com/homekit.
iCloud Setup, Archiving, Backup and Restoring (See above for iCloud Email info)
System requirements for iCloud (includes requirements for using specific features)
iCloud Terms & Conditions
How to Set up iCloud on your Mac
How to Set up iCloud on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
Use iCloud to transfer data from your previous iOS device to your new iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- Transfer your data & purchased content to a new device using your previous device's iCloud backup.
Then Finish setting up your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- When you move content to a new iOS device, you might need to complete a few steps to finish the process.
If you see duplicate contacts after setting up iCloud Contacts
How to Change your iCloud settings
- How to change your iCloud settings, or turn off iCloud completely. .
If you can't connect or sign in to iCloud
About Web-only access to iCloud
If you don't have an iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, or Mac,
you can still use iCloud Drive, Pages, Numbers, or Keynote, Contacts, and Notes directly from iCloud.com.
Apple update on iCloud.com security
How to Set up iCloud Keychain (was titled "Frequently asked questions about iCloud Keychain")
If you enter your iCloud Security Code incorrectly too many times (archived Dec. 2019)
(was titled "About iCloud Security Code alert messages")
iCloud Keychain Help
How to Set up iCloud Keychain
If iCloud Keychain won't turn on or sync
How to Archive or make copies of the information you store in iCloud
iCloud Drive Info
Access and manage files in your iCloud Drive
(originally titled iCloud Drive Frequently Asked Questions.)
Set up iCloud Drive on all of your devices
Add your Desktop and Documents files to iCloud Drive
Access iCloud Drive files from your iPhone and other devices
Share folders with iCloud Drive
About collaboration for Pages, Numbers, and Keynote
Use the Files app on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
Save and edit PDFs on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch with the Books app
(was titled "Use iCloud Drive or iBooks to access your PDF files, ePub files, and books")
Using iWork with iCloud Drive (archived Oct. 2017)
About the new iWork for Mac: Features and compatibility (archived June 2017)
Browse Pages, Numbers, and Keynote files on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
Open older iWork files in newer versions of Pages, Numbers, and Keynote
About iWork '09 compatibility in macOS
- Learn about changes to macOS and how to update your iWork apps.
How to Use Pages, Numbers, and Keynote with Box
About iWork and Box collaboration security
What's the difference between device storage and iCloud storage?
Manage your iCloud storage
iCloud storage plans and pricing
How to Upgrade your iCloud storage plan
How to Share an iCloud storage plan with your family
How to Downgrade or cancel your iCloud storage plan
What happens to your iCloud storage plan when you sign up for Apple One
What does iCloud back up?
If you can't back up to iCloud (iPhone/iPad/iPod Touch)
If restore from iCloud backup failed
About missing information after you restore your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch with iCloud Backup
(Articles HT204058 "iCloud Backup alert messages", HT203756 "Understanding alert messages when restoring from an iCloud Backup" and HT201418 "If you need help restoring your device from an iCloud backup" removed as of July 2016.)
Backup methods for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
How to back up your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
How to Remove a device backup from iCloud
Restore an iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch that needs a newer version of iOS or iPadOS
(was titled "Restoring an iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch backup from iCloud or from a computer
when a later version of iOS or iPadOS is required".)
iCloud Calendar, Reminders and Contacts
Keep your Calendar up to date with iCloud
Add or delete calendar accounts on Mac
Ways to share calendars on Mac
Set up multiple calendars on iPhone
Delete spam calendars and events on iPhone
If your iCloud Contacts, Calendars, or Reminders won't sync
If you can't add iCloud Calendars, Mail, or Contacts to Outlook
Limits for iCloud Contacts, Calendars, Reminders, Bookmarks, and Maps
If you have duplicate events on your iCloud Calendar
If Find My Friends isn't working
iCloud Photo Library
How to Set up and use iCloud Photos
Get help with iCloud Photos
Find out how much iCloud storage you need for your Photos Library on your Mac
How to Manage your photo and video storage
(See above for info on Photos app for OS X 10.10.3 and later)
Organize and find your photos on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
How to use Memories in Photos on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
(automatically creates curated collections)
View memories in Photos on Mac
How to Send photos on your iPhone or iPad with Messages
iCloud Photo Stream and Photo Sharing
About iCloud Photos and My Photo Stream
My Photo Stream FAQ
Get help using My Photo Stream
How to delete photos from Photo Stream
My Photo Stream and iCloud Photo Sharing limits
How to share albums in Photos on your iPhone, iPad, and Mac
How to use Sharing Suggestions in Photos
If Shared Albums aren't working
(was titled "Get help using iCloud Photo Sharing and shared albums")
If you're missing photos or videos in the Photos app
How to Transfer photos and videos from your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch to your Mac or PC
How to Delete photos on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
(Above are help/tips with macOS Photos App)
Problems with iCloud Log In or Verification
If you forgot your Apple ID password
How to find saved passwords (in Safari) on your Mac (Also check Mac Keychain.)
What to do after you change your Apple ID email address or password
Using app-specific passwords (requires two-factor authentication)
Get a verification code & sign in with two-factor authentication
If you see a Could Not Create Apple ID or Could Not Set Up iCloud message
If iCloud asks for the password to your previous Apple ID (archived Aug. 2017)
Setup macOS for Smart Card Authentication
How to Configure macOS for smart card-only authentication
Prepare for smart card changes in macOS Catalina
If you use smart card to log in to your Mac and reset your Active Directory password from another computer
Migrating Data from an earlier OS X to a later OS X Version
How to move your content to a new Mac (using Migration Assistant)
How to migrate data from another Mac using OS X Mountain Lion and earlier (archived)
OS X: Manually migrating data from another Mac (archived)
Migrating Data from Windows to a Mac
Move your data from a Windows PC to a Mac (was "About Windows Migration Assistant")
How to transfer data from a PC to a Mac
Mac tips for Windows switchers (has many basic tips)
Using Boot Camp to run Windows on a Mac
System requirements to install Windows on your Mac using Boot Camp
- Covers Windows 10, Windows 8.1, and Windows 7. (Only Windows 10 listed for macOS Mojave.)
Boot Camp doesn't support RAID (archived July 2020)
How to install Windows 10 on your Mac with Boot Camp Assistant (for Intel-based Macs)
- Includes Mac models that are supported by Windows 10 via Boot Camp.
(See below for guides to older Windows versions)
If the Boot Camp installer doesn't open after using Boot Camp Assistant
If you see the alert 'Installation cannot proceed with Boot Camp configured' (archived July 2020)
What to do Download and install Windows support software on your Mac
(was titled "if some Mac features don't work when running Windows in Boot Camp")
How to Update AMD graphics drivers for Windows in Boot Camp
How to use Apple Software Update for Windows (HT208038 no longer online)
How to Restart your Mac in macOS or Windows
(if you installed Windows with Boot Camp of course)
Tech Tip: How to Use Boot Camp on an External Drive (assisted by freeware VM VirtualBox.)
How to create an ISO image for Boot Camp from Windows installation media (archived Sept. 2018)
How to Set up a Windows partition on your Mac (archived Sept. 2018)
How to Use your Apple Keyboard in Windows with Boot Camp
(was titled "Boot Camp: About keyboards and key assignment for Microsoft Windows")
If you see a "No images are available" error message when you install Windows 10 (archived July 2020)
If installing Windows 10 on your Mac stops at RealTek software (archived July 2020)
Macs with Fusion drive: How to find BOOTCAMP partition in Windows installer (archived July 2020)
If you see a Partition alert message when using Boot Camp Assistant (HT203913 article no longer online)
Info on Older Versions of Windows and Boot Camp
Use Windows 8.1 on your Mac with Boot Camp (archived Sept. 2018)
Install Windows 7 on your Mac using Boot Camp (archived Sept. 2018)
Boot Camp 5.1: Frequently asked questions (archived Sept. 2017)
Boot Camp 4, OS X Lion/Mountain Lion: Frequently asked questions (HT201189 no longer online)
Boot Camp 3.0, OS X 10.6: Frequently asked questions (HT201959 no longer online)
Apple Boot Camp Support Home and Boot Camp users forum
(FYI: An alternative to using Bootcamp (for those that don't need maximum performance) is running Windows (or other OS) on a Mac via a "Virtual Machine" using OS X compatible VM software like Parallels Desktop, Fusion or (freeware) VirtualBox. Check requirements for the VM -and- for the software/app you plan to use with the VM OS. The VM software vendor's user forums are also worth checking for info on compatibility/problems/performance. There are also some 'emulators' (i.e. Crossover, Wine) that may be useful, but generally have more limited compatibility compared to running the full OS.)
M1 Mac Revive/Restore, T2 Chip Macs Firmware Restore & Apple Firmware Restoration CD Downloads
These are for use when a firmware update fails (not to revert to a previous version). Each has a list of compatible Mac models.
- Revive or restore a Mac with Apple silicon with Apple Configurator 2 (see below for Configurator info)
- Revive or Restore firmware in Mac computers with T2 Chip in Apple Configurator (see below for Configurator info)
"What a revive does
In very rare circumstances, such as a power failure during a macOS upgrade, a Mac may become unresponsive and so the firmware on the Apple T2 Security Chip must be revived. A revive updates that firmware. A revive is designed to not make any changes to the startup volume, the user's data volume, or any other volumes.
What a restore does
You must restore the firmware and erase the internal flash storage if:
- You can't start the Mac from the startup volume or the recoveryOS.
- Reviving the T2 chip firmware is unsuccessful.
WARNING: Back up your data before you restore your Mac. When you restore a Mac with a T2 chip, you are restoring the firmware and erasing the internal storage. When this process is complete, any data on any internal volumes is unrecoverable.
Revive and restore processes cover all Intel-based Mac computers with a T2 chip
(See linked article for the latest list of T2 chip Macs. Apple silicon Macs have no T2 Chip.)
See complete instructions on the linked page.
Firmware Restore CDs for non-T2 Chip Macs
- About the Firmware Restoration CD (Intel-based Macs) (now archived)
- Firmware Restoration CD 1.9 for Mid-2010 Mac Pro (MacPro 5,1)
- Firmware Restoration CD 1.8 for Early 2009 Mac Pro (MacPro 4,1) and Xserve 3,1
- Firmware Restoration CD 1.5 for Early 2008 Mac Pro (MacPro 3,1)
- Firmware Restoration CD 1.7 (see list of Mac models in article)
- Firmware Restoration CD 1.6 (see list of Mac models in article)
- Firmware Restoration CD 1.4 (see list of Mac models in article)
The Firmware Restore CD v1.4 doc links to an even older v1.3, but the link 404's. In case anyone really needs it, here's the (Archived) Software License Agreement for Firmware Restoration CD 1.3 that has a D/L link. (Update: D/L link now redirects to Apple Support home as of May 2017.)
Health App Related
- Use the Health app on your iPhone or iPod touch
- Set up your Medical ID in the Health app on your iPhone
- View health records on your iPhone or iPod touch
- Manage Health data on your iPhone, iPod touch, or Apple Watch
- Institutions that support health records on iPhone and iPod touch
- Use Bedtime to track your sleep on your iPhone
- Track your period with Cycle Tracking
Apple Notes App Help and Tips
- How to Use Notes on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
- Draw with Notes on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- About Notes drawing migration to iOS 13 and iPadOS
- If you're missing notes on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- How to Share your notes on your iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, or Mac
- How to Upgrade your Notes app (now archived)
If you use Notes on an older operating system and then update to iOS 9 and later or OS X El Capitan and later,
you get the option to upgrade your notes and take advantage of all the features the upgraded Notes app offers.
Apple Watch Related
- Set up your Apple Watch
- How to use your Apple Watch
- Set up cellular on your Apple Watch
- How to Back up your Apple Watch
- How to restart your Apple Watch
- Update the software on your Apple Watch
- If your Apple Watch displays a red exclamation point
- Keep Apple Watch within acceptable operating temperatures
- How to Use the Always On feature with your Apple Watch Series 5
- About Apple Watch water resistance
- How to Swim with your Apple Watch
- About Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and cellular on your Apple Watch
- How to use your Apple Watch without your iPhone nearby
- How to pair your Apple Watch with a new iPhone
- How to Unpair and erase your Apple Watch
- Apple Watch Battery and Performance
- How to check your battery and charge your Apple Watch
- If your Apple Watch won't charge or it won't turn on
- If your Apple Watch Series 5 or Apple Watch SE is in Power Reserve and won't charge
(This bug was fixed in watchOS 7.3.1 update on Feb. 15, 2021.)
- What to do if you forgot your Apple Watch passcode
(was titled "Reset the passcode on your Apple Watch".)
- Wearing your Apple Watch
- Change the watch face on your Apple Watch
- Change your Apple Watch band
- How to clean your Apple Watch
- Install apps on your Apple Watch
- Listen to music, podcasts, and audiobooks on your Apple Watch
- Use the Workout app on Apple Watch
- Use Keynote with your Apple Watch
- Use Digital Touch on your Apple Watch
- Use the Dock on your Apple Watch
- Get help finding, installing, and using apps on your Apple Watch
- now goes to "If an app unexpectedly quits, stops responding, or won't open".
- About Notifications on your Apple Watch
- Change the audio and notification settings on your Apple Watch
- How to use Emergency SOS on your Apple Watch
- How to use Schooltime on Apple Watch
- How to Use Apple Watch as a remote control for your Apple TV or iTunes
- How to Automatically unlock your Mac with your Apple Watch
- How to take a screenshot on your Apple Watch
- Use accessibility features on your Apple Watch
- How to use the Breathe app
- Use the Activity app on your Apple Watch
- Earn Activity awards using your Apple Watch
- Heart health notifications on your Apple Watch
- Your heart rate. What it means, and where on Apple Watch you'll find it
- Taking an ECG with the ECG app on Apple Watch Series 4 or later
- Calibrating your Apple Watch for improved Workout and Activity accuracy
- Use the Noise app on your Apple Watch
- About Activation Lock on your Apple Watch
- How to find the serial number or IMEI for your Apple Watch
- How to get your Apple Watch ready for service
Apple AirPods, AirPods Pro, AirPods Max, & Powerbeats Pro Help and Tips
- Apple's AirPods Support page
- How to Set up AirPods with your Mac and other Bluetooth devices
- How to Set up AirPods Max with your Mac and other Bluetooth devices
- Choose your AirPods Pro ear tips and use the Ear Tip Fit Test
- Wearing your AirPods, AirPods Pro, AirPods Max, EarPods, or Beats devices
- Charge your AirPods with charging case and learn about battery life
- How to charge your AirPods Max and learn about battery life
- What to do if your AirPods won't charge
- How to Connect your AirPods and AirPods Pro to your iPhone
- How to Connect and use your AirPods Max
- What to do if your AirPods won't connect
- Change the settings of your AirPods and AirPods Pro
- Customize headphone audio levels on your iPhone or iPad
- Listen with spatial audio for AirPods Pro and AirPods Max
- Announce Messages with Siri on AirPods
- AirPods Pro and AirPods Max Active Noise Cancellation and Transparency mode
- Use Live Listen with AirPods, AirPods Pro, AirPods Max, or Powerbeats Pro
- What to do If your left or right AirPod isn't working
- How to Reset your AirPods Max
- How to How to reset your AirPods and AirPods Pro
- If your AirPods Pro make crackling or static sounds
- How to clean your AirPods, AirPods Pro, AirPods Max, and EarPods
- How to find your lost AirPods, AirPods Pro, or AirPods Max
- How to Set up your replacement AirPods or charging case
(was titled "Replace an AirPod or charging case")
- If your Powerbeats Pro are lost
- Beats Repair and Service
AppleCare and Warranty Help
Forgot Your Passcode for iPhone, iPad or iPod Touch?
AirTag Info, Setup and Tips
What to Do If your iPhone/iPad/iPod Touch, or Mac is Lost or Stolen (and Before)
- Use the Find My app to locate a missing device or item
- Set up Find My on your iPhone, Mac, and other devices
- Use Lost Mode in Find My iPhone on iCloud.com
- What to do if your Mac is lost or stolen
- What to do if your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch is lost or stolen
- What to do if your Apple Watch is lost or stolen
- How to report a lost or stolen Apple product (now archived)
- How to protect your data on iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
- How to find the serial number, IMEI, MEID, CDN, and ICCID number
(includes tips even if you don't have the iOS device due to theft or lost)
- What is Find My iPhone?
- If Find My iPhone is offline or not working
- About Activation Lock for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch
- How to Remove a device from Find My iPhone on iCloud.com
- How to Remove Activation Lock
iPhone Activation, Unlocking and Carrier Settings Updates
Before Selling or Giving Away your Mac or iPhone/iPad/iPod Touch
- What to do before you sell, give away, or trade in your Mac
(including Deauthorizing the computer if it was authorized for purchased iTunes content)
- Erase your AirPort Time Capsule drive before selling or giving it away.
- What to do before you sell, give away, or trade in your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- How to Transfer content from your previous iOS device to your new iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- How to erase your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
- How to Set up your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
Mac Service and Repair Costs
- Apple's Mac Service and Repair page (includes accessories)
- Learn how to get your Mac desktop or Mac notebook fixed and how much it will cost.
What to Do Before Sending your Mac or iPhone/iPad/iPod Touch in for Repair
How to Check the Status of an Apple Repair or Problem Report
Cleaning your Mac, Display, Keyboard, iPhone, iPad, Watch, HomePod, or Apple accessory
- Apple's article on How to clean your Apple products
- Laptops, Desktops, iPhones, iPads, iPods, monitors and peripherals.
(Now has a note "Is it OK to use a disinfectant on my Apple product?")
- How to clean the keyboard of your MacBook or MacBook Pro
- How to disinfect the Apple internal or external keyboard, trackpad, and mouse (archived Jan. 2017)
- How to clean the nano-texture glass on your Apple display
- Learn How to Clean your iPhone
(includes notes on using a disinfectant.)
- How to clean your Apple Watch
- Cleaning and taking care of HomePod
- How to clean your AirPods, AirPods Pro, AirPods Max, and EarPods
- About splash, water, and dust resistance of iPhone 7 and later
(Reminder: Liquid damage to iPhone or iPod isn't covered by warranty - see Indicators)
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